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Analyse moléculaire du tissu adipeux humain en fonction de sa localisation anatomique et effet du PRP (Plateled Rich Plasma) sur les progéniteurs adipeux humains (ASCs)

Abstract : Different fields in plastic and aesthetic surgery have evolved in recent years including the transfer and injection of autologous adipose tissue. The first clinical data was presented without any real scientific support. The purpose of this thesis is to improve this technic by adding scientific evidence. There are two questions to consider: 1) Do adipose tissues have different characteristics according to their anatomical origin, and should certain regions be preferred for autografting? 2) Are there autologous growth factors to stimulate engraftment, proliferation and differentiation of grafted cells? The first part of this work consisted in analyzing the adipose tissue according to the fat depot. For this purpose, we analyzed the adipose tissues from 2 anatomical sites: the knee and the chin. The rational of this choice comes from a technical reason and a theoretical reason. Our results suggest that the two sites studied have different embryonic origins, and show that these two sites have a different molecular signature and functionality. The second part of the work deals with the in vitro effect of autologous human growth factors. on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose stem cells (ASCs). For this purpose, we used platelet concentrates from blood samples, which can therefore be used in human therapeutic practice. It is the PRF (fibrin-rich platelet) and the PRP (platelet-rich plasma). The results of the study show that the presence of PRF or PRP in the culture medium allows a drastic increase in ASC proliferation of about 4 to 5 times. In contrast, the results show a partial inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, whatever the period and the time of contact. We analyzed the composition of different PRP sources and we identified the involvement of the TGFB pathway in the anti adipogenic effects of PRP. In contrast, the antiadipogenic effect was concomitant with the differentiation of ASCs towards myofibroblasts-like cells. In conclusion, this work allows us immediate clinical transposition using PRP during lipofilling. This work also makes it possible to highlight the probable difference in function of the adipocytes taken according to their original anatomical site. This likely has a consequence on the long term evolution of these adipose tissue grafts in case of a weight change.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 25, 2018 - 9:49:05 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:21:14 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, September 26, 2018 - 12:40:20 PM

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Bérengère Chignon-Sicard. Analyse moléculaire du tissu adipeux humain en fonction de sa localisation anatomique et effet du PRP (Plateled Rich Plasma) sur les progéniteurs adipeux humains (ASCs). Biologie cellulaire. COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4008⟩. ⟨tel-01822409⟩

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