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Importance de la désimination dans l'homéostasie de l'épiderme et du follicule pileux

Abstract : Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze a post-translational modification, named deimination, corresponding to the transformation of arginine residues into citrulline. So far, their role is still poorly understood even if they have been associated with numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the epidermis and the hair follicle, three PADs are expressed, namely PAD1, 2 and 3. Deimination of filaggrin (FLG), a major protein of epidermal differentiation, would lead to its detachment from keratin filaments and allow its full proteolysis. The resulting free amino acids contribute to the barrier function of the cornified layer, the outmost cellular layer of the epidermis. In the hair follicle, deimination of trichohyalin (TCHH), a FLG-related protein, increases its solubility and improves its crosslinking by transglutaminase 3 (TGase 3) to keratins, contributing to the hair shaft formation. However, the function of PADs during keratinocyte differentiation is incompletely described and their involvements in skin diseases have been poorly investigated. The objective of my work was to better understand the role of PADs in the metabolism of FLG, and more generally in the epidermis and hair follicle homeostasis. First of all, I demonstrated that a major step in the metabolism of human FLG is its deimination by PAD1 and/or PAD3. This regulates its complete degradation according to the external humidity level. For this purpose, I used reconstructed human epidermis (RHEs) as an experimental model. Lowering relative humidity from 95 to 30-50% during RHE generation enhanced FLG proteolysis as well as the resulting amino acid amount. In parallel, PAD1 expression and FLG deimination were highly increased while the expression or activity of proteases known to target FLG did not vary. Moreover, treatment of RHEs during 24 hours with Cl-amidine, a PAD inhibitor, partially blocked the effect of dryness on FLG metabolism. Then, I investigated whether deimination could play a more general role during keratinocyte differentiation. I treated RHEs with various concentrations of Cl-amidine during 48 hours and I analyzed the effect of treatments on the epidermis morphology. The inhibition of deimination was dose-dependent and not cytotoxic. At the strongest concentration, Cl-amidine was shown to cause thinning of the cornified layer, to highly increase the number of transitional cells and to induce accumulation of mitochondria and vesicles in the cytoplasm of granular keratinocytes. This suggested that cornification, the ultimate stage of keratinocyte differentiation, is slowed down by Cl-amidine treatment. Besides, as the autophagosome marker LC3B-II was up-regulated in Cl-amidine treated RHEs, PAD1 and/or PAD3 could be involved in the cornification-associated process of autophagy. Finally, I participated in a new collaborative work that led to discover the cause of uncombable hair syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. Mutations of the genes encoding TCHH, PAD3 and TGase 3 were identified in 11 families and were shown to be responsible for the disease. The nonsense mutation in TCHH gene results in the synthesis, if any, of a very short protein, probably not able to interact with keratins. Mutations in PAD3 and TGase3 genes were shown to induce structural changes and almost total absence of activity of the corresponding enzymes. Moreover, examination of Pad3 deficient mice revealed alterations in the hair morphology. These results allowed a better understanding of this hair disease physiopathology and proved that PAD3 is essential for the hair shaft morphogenesis.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 22, 2018 - 12:17:05 PM
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Laura Cau. Importance de la désimination dans l'homéostasie de l'épiderme et du follicule pileux. Biologie structurale [q-bio.BM]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30130⟩. ⟨tel-01821183⟩

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