Modélisation de la propagation électromagnétique en milieux inhomogènes basée sur les faisceaux gaussiens : application à la propagation en atmosphère réaliste et à la radio-occultation entre satellites

Abstract : The subject of this PhD thesis is " Electromagnetic propagation modeling in inhomogeneous media with refractive index gradients based on Gaussian beams - Application to realistic atmospheric propagation and radio occultation between satellites ". The study started on december 2nd, 2013 at the DEMR (Département Électromagnétisme et Radar) department of the ONERA research laboratory, in Toulouse, France. It was funded both by the ONERA and Région Midi-Pyrénées. It was supervised by Jérôme Sokoloff (LAPLACE/UPS, thesis director), Alexandre Chabory (ENAC, thesis co-director) and Vincent Fabbro (ONERA). The doctoral school was "École Doctorale Génie Électrique, Électronique, Télécommunications : du système au nanosystème ". The Gaussian beam was mostly used in scientific investigations to study optical systems such as lasers. Rarer and more recent works suggested the use of the Gaussian beam formalism in order to model the propagation of seismic waves. The properties of the Gaussian beam also led some authors to develop models for atmospheric propagation. In this thesis a model based on Gaussian beams called GBAR (Gaussian Beam for Atmospheric Refraction) was developped for tropospheric propagation in realistic and deterministic conditions. The scientific approach consisted in rewritting the fundamental equations introduced by Cerveny and Popov describing iteratively the propagation of a Gaussian beam in inhomogeneous media, under the high-frequency assumption (asymptotic model). New equations were derived from them in order to get analytical equations of the propagation of a Gaussian beam in inhomogeneous media described by the variations of the refractive index. The basic assumption under to get the analytical equations is to consider that the refractive index gradient is vertical and constant around the beam axis. The analytical equations that describe the propagation of a Gaussian beam were extended to model the propagation of an arbitrary field in a tropospheric medium with strong variations and inversions of the refractive index. This was done by coupling the analytical equations with the multibeam expansion procedure developped by Alexandre Chabory in his PhD thesis. The GBAR model was validated in tropospheric conditions, using refractive index grids from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) mesoscale meteorological model. In the third and final phase, the GBAR model was used to simulate Radio Occultation data inversions. Tools exist to allow for interpretations of Radio Occultation data in order to estimate the physical properties of the atmosphere from measured phased, amplitude, Doppler shift and delay of GNSS signals transmitted between satellites orbiting around the Earth
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Charles-Antoine L'Hour. Modélisation de la propagation électromagnétique en milieux inhomogènes basée sur les faisceaux gaussiens : application à la propagation en atmosphère réaliste et à la radio-occultation entre satellites. Physique Générale [physics.gen-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30069⟩. ⟨tel-01820740⟩

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