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Pollutions du milieu littoral par les microplastiques : Méthodes d’évaluation

Abstract : Plastics are technical materials necessary for industrialized societies. However, in the early 2000s, plastic particles of about ten microns were observed in seawater samples. These are called "microplastics". Their presence in most environments has been progressively highlighted making it an anthropocene marker. Moreover, these particles interact with environments and may carry toxic additives or micropollutants. However, scientific and technical barriers limit this accurate evaluation. In this context, the aims of this work are (1) to determine the most efficient and cost- effective extraction conditions of microplastics trapped in sand and (2) to evaluate the toxicity due to the interactions between micropollutants and aged plastics, which can occur in the marine environment. Thus, an elutriation system prototype has been built and an adapted protocol developed to efficiently extract microplastics from sand. In order to determine the optimal elutriation flow velocities, a simple numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations has been developed. This numerical model has been validated by comparing theoretical and experimental results. However, these results also demonstrate that process optimization was required: based on different constraints, for example the time needed to achieve the elutriation or the size of the column, new data on the design have been acquired. The evolution of the surface state and the toxicity of 3 types of plastic (PVC, PET and PBAT) immersed in the marine environment during 550 days was studied on Kernevel harbor (Larmor-Plage, France). The results of the plastics ageing show very different behaviors. PBAT ages faster than PVC whereas PET does not exhibit large modifications. The aging of PVC is accompanied by a loss of compounders characterized by an estrogenic activity and by the adsorption of heavy metals. In the marine environment, the degradation of the PBAT surface forms cavities in which clay particles can be trapped. Moreover, in a more punctual manner than PVC, this material exhibit strong estrogenic activities.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 22, 2018 - 4:07:54 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01820632, version 1

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Mikaël Kedzierski. Pollutions du milieu littoral par les microplastiques : Méthodes d’évaluation. Génie des procédés. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORIS464⟩. ⟨tel-01820632⟩

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