Variation exo- et endostructurale des dents permanentes humaines du maxillaire et de la mandibule : singularité des premiers et des derniers Néandertaliens et Hommes modernes

Abstract : This work focuses on the exo- and endostructural crowns variations of maxillary and mandible permanent teeth of Neandertals and modern Humans. It integrates three fields of investigation using high-resolution imaging (e.g. μCT-scan) and the third dimension applied in canines (excepted 3D geometric morphometrics), premolars and molars. One of these fields relates to the 3D enamel thickness and the 3D tissues proportion, the second concerns outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction shapes (3D geometric morphometrics), and the third concerns the nonmetric traits at the outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction. This study includes a sample of 190 microtomographic Neandertal teeth, including unpublished microtomographic data of Hortus (Hérault, France) and Portel-Ouest (Ariège, France) teeth (n = 45), and microtomographic sample of 300 modern Humans teeth. The results show that 3D approach of dental crowns using microtomography data is very useful to distinguish Neandertals from modern Humans in terms of 3D enamel thickness and tissues proportions (except for the M1 / M1), as well as in terms of the EDJ marginal edge shape, for the majority of studied teeth. Moreover, differences of tissues organization in crowns were observed within the Neandertal sample, between the Krapina specimens, that can be considered as a group of early Neandertals (MIS 5e, approx. 130 ka), and the Hortus and Portel specimens, that can be considered as a group of least Neandertals (MIS 3, approx. 44 ka) and show a tissues organization of dental crowns more similar to modern Humans. This suggests a significant geographic or diachronic inter-group variation among Neandertals that seems to relate endostructural reorganization of the coronary tissues to the reduction of the absolute volume of dental crowns.
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Gaël Becam. Variation exo- et endostructurale des dents permanentes humaines du maxillaire et de la mandibule : singularité des premiers et des derniers Néandertaliens et Hommes modernes. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Perpignan, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PERP0015⟩. ⟨tel-01820613⟩

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