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Caractérisation fonctionnelle des stratégies de compétition pour les ressources aériennes et souterraines au sein d’une gamme d’espèces végétales : application à la régulation biologique des adventices par les plantes de services dans l'agrosystème bananier antillais

Abstract : Banana agro-ecosystems in the French West Indies have relied for a long time on intensive monocultures. A shift to agroecological management practices have been made since the “Plan Banane Durable” program in 2009. To achieve the aim of reducing the use of chemical inputs, the introduction of cover plants to deliver agroecosystem services under study to reconcile agronomic and environmental issues. These services include the biological control of weeds by cover plants which requires to introduce cover plant species with a good ability to compete for light towards weeds. However the introduction of cover plants should not cause a dis-service by reducing the production of bananas through a competition for mineral and water soil resources. A better knowledge of aboveground and belowground competition process by cover plants is then essential to reason their use in cropping systems. We chose an approach based on functional traits to characterize plant species from this very anthropized agroecosystem because an exhaustive study of the ecophysiological processes underlying competition is not suitable for a large panel of potentially useful cover plant species. We assume that a combination of values of functional traits related to the acquisition and use of resources reflects a strategy of competition. The objectives of this thesis were 1) to characterize a panel of potential cover plant and weed species as well as two banana cultivars according to functional traits related to the acquisition and use of aboveground and belowground resources, 2) identify competition strategies on the basis of the combinations of trait values obtained for each species and 3) comparing the competitive effects of the species as a function of their competition strategies. This study is based on a bibliographic work to identify traits of interest, a first field experiment to characterize the competition strategy of the different species by measuring functional traits on plants grown individually and in non-limiting resources conditions and a second field experiment to characterize the competitive relationships between species according to their respective competitive strategies. The analysis of the results allowed us to build two classifications of species according to their strategy, one based on competitive traits for light and the other one based on the competitive traits for soil resources. Our results allowed to distinguish four aboveground competition strategies for light ("shade", "obstruction," "smothering low”," strong smothering ") and four belowground competition strategies for soil resources (" exploration "," occupation "" exploitation, "" neutral "). The species of the panel were replaced on the main axes of differentiation between species in ecology opposing resource conservation and capture strategies. The results do not show links between aboveground and belowground strategies. These functional classifications can be used to identify the most qualified species, a priori, to be used in banana cropping systems of the French West Indies. The use of functional traits in an agronomic context enabled us to acquire a better knowledge of the species competition abilities and opens perspectives for the establishment of a decision-making tool for the choice of species to include in multi-species cover.
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Florence Tardy. Caractérisation fonctionnelle des stratégies de compétition pour les ressources aériennes et souterraines au sein d’une gamme d’espèces végétales : application à la régulation biologique des adventices par les plantes de services dans l'agrosystème bananier antillais. Agronomie. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS096⟩. ⟨tel-01817454⟩

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