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Liquidity in the banking sector

Abstract : As one determinant of a bank’s survival during the financial crisis of 2007-2008, liquidity in the banking sector presents a challenge for the financial and academic communities and has recently become a central point of interest. The three articles presented in this thesis focus on the two main facets of liquidity in the banking sector: the holding of liquid assets (i.e., cash and assimilated resources) and the process of liquidity-creation in banks used to fund loans. As will be discussed in the articles, these two aspects of liquidity can be viewed as two sides of the same coin. I acknowledge that liquidity in banking is linked to the creation of money; however, this thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of liquidity. First, this section presents how ideas about liquidity in the banking sector have evolved in mainstream economic thought. Second, it considers the revival of cash-holding that has been observed since the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Third, it discusses the properties of liquidity. Fourth, it explores what we do not know about liquidity. Fifth, it identifies the fundamental issues analyzed in the three articles. Finally, it presents the methodology used in the articles to address these issues. Chapter1: “Why do banks hold cash ?”. This paper investigates the determinants of bank cash holding by using international data for the period 1981-2014. The results do not seem to provide support for the substitutability hypothesis regarding the substitutive relation between cash and debt levels. Further, using the GMM-system estimation method, we find no support for the dynamic optimal cash model, suggesting that cash management in the banking sector is bounded by number of constraints that make it difficult for the agents to optimize their utility. Chapter 2: “Does an increase in capital negatively impact banking liquidity creation?”. From a dataset composed of a panel of 940 listed banks based in European, American and Asian countries, this paper documents the evolution of bank liquidity creation over a 35-year period (1981-2014). The empirical evidence confirms that risk and equity levels play a significant and negative role. Overall, the negative effects of equity increases on bank liquidity creation are more significant than corresponding positive effects on risk management, suggesting that capital requirements imposed to support financial stability negatively affect liquidity creation. These findings have broad implications for policymakers. Chapter 3: “Positive effects of Basel III on banking liquidity creation”. This paper estimates the effect of the Basel III regulatory framework on banking liquidity creation. The results are based on a panel data set of U.S. banks that represent approximately 60% of U.S. loans and deposits over a 7-year period (from 2009 to 2015) in addition to difference-in-difference and standard survival methods. All components of Basel III taken together, there is empirical evidence that Basel III has a positive effect on banking liquidity creation in the US market in particular for major banks. These findings have broad implications for policy makers.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 15, 2018 - 10:25:18 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01816972, version 1



Laurent Salé. Liquidity in the banking sector. Business administration. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01E002⟩. ⟨tel-01816972⟩



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