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Cartographie et évaluation de la dynamique à court terme d'instabilités gravitaires de grandes ampleurs : exemple du massif de la Cristallère en haute Vallée d'Aspe (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France) : apports des mesures de positionnement satellitaire et des observations aériennes par drone

Abstract : For these last decades, few subjects of the geology of the engineer have drawn the attention of the scientific community as much as those dealing of the natural hazards and more particularly with large-scale gravitational instabilities known as DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation) and DSL (Deep Seated Landslide). Based on few cases study on a natural scale (dating and recent monitoring), short term temporal dynamics remains one of their least studied aspects today. We made the choice of the Cristallère massif as an example. It is located in Upper Aspe Valley of the Pyrenees (Béarn region). The Cristallère DSL was recently identified and analyzed through two dating methods.On the basis of this work, our first approach consists in assessing short term temporal dynamics of these slopes movements on various scales and with various methods of satellites positioning (GPS and GLONASS constellations): multistation positioning RGP (Permanent Geodetic Network in France), statics geodetic with pivot and fast static with pivot. We insist in this work, given the original results obtained, on the interest of the differential GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) with a pivot which must be geographically close to the observations to be carried out in order to ensure sufficient accuracy (cm).Observations and exploitation of drone digital elevation models of the site from aerial surveys at different scales obtained with a “flying wing” are the second approach to this research work. They complete the mapping of the site and demonstrate the existence of a DSGSD based on a high resolution and high precision geomorphometric characterization (cm); they make it possible to refine the delimitation of the Cristallère DSL and its most active area (Pène du Thès) and the Peilhou DSL.In addition to these two complementary approaches, a geological and geophysical survey (structural geology measurements, electrical resistivity tomographies and electromagnetic profiles Very Low Frequency surveys) and an analysis of the available data on the structures present in the unstable slope, such as the large diameter underground water pipe for the hydroelectric plant of Baralet and the former railway tunnel of Peilhou. The combined use of these three approaches confirms that the deep movements of the Cristallère massif are still active with proven seismic forcing: awareness of the potential role taken by the DSGSD is then fundamental. Thus, all the existing structures in the massif or the projects on this site (new constructions or rehabilitation of old structures) have to consider the existence of a slow and gradual change of the entire massif (DSGSD). Moreover, the methodology developed in this work is intended to be general. It also makes possible to monitor and follow, in the short and medium term, all types of ground movement, in particular landslides or rockslides, deep or superficial, slow or fast.
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Amélie Thomas. Cartographie et évaluation de la dynamique à court terme d'instabilités gravitaires de grandes ampleurs : exemple du massif de la Cristallère en haute Vallée d'Aspe (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France) : apports des mesures de positionnement satellitaire et des observations aériennes par drone. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0914⟩. ⟨tel-01816396⟩

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