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Devenir des propriétés immunomodulatrices des cellules souches mésenchymateuses de la gelée de Wharton au cours de la différenciation chondrocytaire

Abstract : The purpose of this work is to determine the optimal conditions for allogeneic substitutes production, adapted to filling the cartilaginous lesions in osteoarthritis treatment. It focuses on the cellular component of these substitutes. The use of mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cords (WJ-MSC) involves determining which factors, related to direct and indirect environment of the WJ-MSC, can influence their proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. In a first part of our work, three types of factors were studied: related to the donor child, the course of labor and delivery, pregnancy and the mother. Our results show that WJ-MSC have enhanced proliferative capacities when coming from full-term birth and without complications, with the use of Syntocinon® during labor. On this basis, we used the most effective WJ-MSC for cartilage engineering. It was then essential to elucidate their action profile in allogeneic context. We stimulated WJ-MSC embedded in Alginate/Hyaluronic Acid (Alg/HA) scaffolds with different concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α in order to determine the most effective stimulation profile, with regard to viability of the cells and evolution of immunomodulatory soluble factors secretion. According to our results, the stimulation by IFN-γ and TNF-α on WJ-MSC in Alg/HA scaffolds is more effective when these two cytokines are used together and is not deleterious for cell viability at the concentrations of 20 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. This double stimulation induces an increase in the secretion of IL-6 and PGE-2 by the WJ-MSC, a decrease in the secretion of VEGF and does not modify the secretion of TGF-β. We confirmed these data during a functional study: cocultures with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors allowed us to evaluate the response of WJ-MSC in an allogeneic situation. These allogeneic situations have been studied at different times to evaluate the immunological properties of WJ-MSC during the time of chondrogenic differentiation. Our results show that WJ-MSC can express HLA-G molecules as well as IDO, but these expressions are limited in Alg/HA biomaterials. Finally, the WJ-MSC in Alg/HA biomaterials in allogeneic conditions are not immunogenic, regardless of the time of differentiation. On the other hand, their immunomodulatory capacities decrease over time and are stronger at day 0 and day 3 of chondrogenic differentiation, which leads to an early use of these cells. Finally, this work allows us to (i) select the umbilical cords suitable for cellular and cartilage engineering, (ii) define the conditions mimicking in vitro an allogeneic situation, (iii) elucidate the immunomodulatory properties of WJ-MSC during Alg/HA biomaterials chondrogenic differentiation, including allogeneic situations
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01816024
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 14, 2018 - 4:32:19 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01816024, version 1

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Léonore Avercenc-Léger. Devenir des propriétés immunomodulatrices des cellules souches mésenchymateuses de la gelée de Wharton au cours de la différenciation chondrocytaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0210⟩. ⟨tel-01816024⟩

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