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Un nouveau regard cladistique sur l'anatomie comparée, la phylogénie, la systématique et la paléoécologie des rudistes (Bivalvia, Hippuritida)

Abstract : The rudist bivalves form a monophyletic group that extends in the fossil record from 160 to 66 million years. The objective of this thesis is to propose new insights at the evolutionary history of this group within the framework of cladistic theory. In the first part, we lay the theoretical, methodological and technical foundations of the three-item analysis. The concept of triplet allows us to propose arguments on the relevance of consensus trees in cladistics. The three-item analysis method is then compared to the method of parsimony using theoretical and methodological arguments, and simulations based on evolutionary models. In a second part, we apply the theory and method to the reconstruction of the rudist history. The genus Ichthyosarcolites is reviewed, and statistical analyses are used to test the relevance of homology hypotheses based on shell shape. Hypotheses of homology and new characters based on myophores and pallial canals are tested on the Hippuritida. The new, resulting phylogeny is consistent with known geological occurrences of the group and further our understanding of rudist evolutionary history during the Cretaceous. The study of Cenomanian outcrops of the South Provence Basin (Var, France) allows us to make a link between the history of the diversification of rudists and their paleoecology.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01814277, version 1

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Valentin Rineau. Un nouveau regard cladistique sur l'anatomie comparée, la phylogénie, la systématique et la paléoécologie des rudistes (Bivalvia, Hippuritida). Paléontologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066503⟩. ⟨tel-01814277⟩

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