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Theses

Du système de parenté à la diversité génétique dans les populations humaines d'Asie du Sud-Est

Abstract : In humans, evolution is not only biological but also cultural. In addition, biological and cultural processes interact with each other. Kinship system is particularly interesting for population geneticists since it conditions when, where and with whom men and women reproduce and raise their children. It is therefore a key factor in the genetic evolution of human populations. However, most studies in human population genetics do not take into account the influence of social structures. The aim of this Phd thesis was to deepen our understanding of the influence of kinship system on genetic diversity. We undertook a pluridisciplinary and quantitative approach by collecting genetic and ethno-demographic data from 12 Southeast Asian populations exhibiting a wide variety of descent (matrilineal, patrilineal, or cognatic) and residence (matrilocal, patrilocal, or multilocal) rules.We first showed that kinship systems influence ethno-demographic variables that impacts the evolution of genetic diversity, notably sex-specific migrations. We found that patrilineal and matrilineal systems are not the symmetric opposite of each other. There was a higher residence rule flexibility in patrilineal populations compared to matrilineal populations. In consequence, male migration rates were similar between kinship systems whereas female migration rates were higher in patrilineal populations compared to matrilineal populations. In addition, we showed that matrilineal populations and cognatic populations with predominant matrilocal residence had a higher village endogamy compared to patrilineal populations. The ethnological reasons for these observations were discussed, in particular in the light of the matrilineal puzzle hypothesis. We then tested to which extent such ethno-demographic differences between populations following different kinship systems impact their uniparental genetic diversity. We could detect the impact of the higher residence rule flexibility in patrilineal populations: indeed, Y chromosome diversity followed the male migration pattern, and was similar between kinship systems, whereas mitochondrial DNA diversity followed the female migration pattern, and was higher in patrilineal populations compared to matrilineal populations. Finally, we focused on the influence of kinship systems on autosomal diversity, more specifically on inbreeding levels. We demonstrated that, due to larger village endogamy, inbreeding level was higher in matrilineal and cognatic populations compared to patrilineal populations Together these results showed that the kinship system has to be considered as the combination of a set of crossing and interacting rules (descent, residence and alliance), whose effects on genetic diversity can be disentangled only by going beyond categorizations and performing a quantitative assessment of relevant ethno-demographic variables.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01814180
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 13, 2018 - 1:01:10 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01814180, version 1

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Goki Ly. Du système de parenté à la diversité génétique dans les populations humaines d'Asie du Sud-Est. Génétique humaine. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MNHN0007⟩. ⟨tel-01814180⟩

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