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Le sommeil : microarchitecture, oscillations cérébrales et consolidation mnésique. Etude électrophysiologique in vivo chez la souris

Abstract : Sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. In humans as in rodents, sleep is composed of a paradoxical phase (REM), and a non-REM phase, which is characterized by delta oscillations (1-4Hz), spindles (8-14Hz) and ripples (150-200Hz), all implicated in the consolidation process. The fine mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of sleep in memory consolidation have been further detailed thanks to the model of rodent spatial memory, which depends on the hippocampus. This cerebral structure contains place cells, neurons whose activity is tightly correlated to the animal position. During sleep, place cells activity is replayed during ripples, as if the memory trace was repeated to consolidate spatial learning. Using a brain-machine interface, we triggered rewarding brain stimulation on the spontaneous reactivation of a given place cell during sleep. Upon awakening, the mouse went directly to the associated place field, showing that place cells still convey the same spatial information during sleep than during navigation. Moreover, this result shows the causal role of place cells in navigation, and confirms the feasibility of creating a complex new memory during sleep. At last, in order to facilitate translational research on sleep, we developed a scoring method which distinguishes different non-REM sleep phases as those observed in human sleep. Those substages revealed very similar characteristics to humans’ and this new method allowed the fine description of sleep regulation and associated brain rhythms; the role of respiratory rhythm and olfactory bulb in this regulation is also discussed.
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Marie Lacroix. Le sommeil : microarchitecture, oscillations cérébrales et consolidation mnésique. Etude électrophysiologique in vivo chez la souris. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066098⟩. ⟨tel-01811689⟩

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