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Une innovation technique en train de se faire. Le goutte à goutte en pratique au Maroc : acteurs, bricolages et efficiences.

Abstract : Abstract Promoted as the most efficient irrigation technology, able to contribute to solving the major current water crises, drip irrigation spreads quickly throughout the world. The perspective of an idealized technology with a theoretical efficiency studied in experimental stations without users struck us immediately. Rejecting a normative view of drip irrigation (what it should be/do), we studied it in practice, interacting with a multitude of actors focusing on what it does and for whom. Our objective is to analyse how the practice of this technical innovation has changed the technology and the socio-professional pathways of different actors involved in drip irrigation, and analyse the impact on actual irrigation efficiencies. We show how local actors took control of the innovation taking responsibility in spheres once thought reserved for engineers in the production, use and dissemination of innovation. These local initiatives crossed and strengthened state development programs promoting drip irrigation. The technology attracted a large number of non-conventional actors who changed the technology, but also changed themselves. The successful diffusion of drip irrigation ensures their socio-professional promotion, and they in turn will attract more users to the world of drip irrigation. This constitutes the strength of drip irrigation, which is a technical object around which powerful socio-technical networks were built. Bricolage helped design systems better suited to local conditions, but was also a learning process to incorporate change. From an imported technology accessible to a minority of large farmers, a plurality of drip systems is now accessible for a wide diversity of farmers. Finally, the performance of irrigation systems is heterogeneous, some farmers irrigating 3-4 times the volume necessary for crop water requirements. This performance can be explained by irrigation practices favouring a water comfort to crops, reflecting the logic of the actors. Today, "water saving" is an unattainable goal, as it is not a priority for any of the actors, including the state. We conclude that it would be interesting to engage non-conventional actors as allies in order to promote the concept of water saving on the field with users.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 8, 2018 - 12:59:05 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, July 2, 2020 - 1:59:45 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01810938, version 1

Citation

Maya Benouniche. Une innovation technique en train de se faire. Le goutte à goutte en pratique au Maroc : acteurs, bricolages et efficiences.. Hydrologie. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014MON20176⟩. ⟨tel-01810938⟩

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