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Régulation par le fer et rôle de la colibactine dans la colonisation du tube digestif par Escherichia coli

Abstract : The intestinal microbiota, i.e. the microorganisms present in the intestinal tract, plays a major role in diverse host functions: digestive, metabolic, immune and neurologic. Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the commensal intestinal microflora of the human and mammals, and colonizes the gut within few days after birth. E. coli can be classified into 7 major phylogenetic groups. The B2 group contains the highest number of strains responsible for chronic (cancers, Crohn's disease, ...) or extra-intestinal infections (neonatal meningitis, septicemia, urinary tract infections, ...). Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that the prevalence of the B2 strains increases in industrialized countries, to the detriment of the ancestral A group. The objective of this study was to determine the factors involved in this evolution. Genetic analysis showed that strains from the phylogenetic B2 group have high capacities to take up iron through numerous siderophores. Moreover, only B2 strains are able to produce the genotoxin colibactin, which induces double strand brakes DNA in eukaryotic cells, leading to colorectal cancers or to altered development of the intestinal barrier. Siderophores and colibactin belong to the same family of molecules, i.e. hybrid polyketide-non ribosomal peptide. Their biosynthesis involves multifunctional enzymes that need to be activated by the covalent binding of a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety. This post-translational modification is catalyzed by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). The PPTase involved in colibactin and in siderophore biosynthesis are ClbA and EntD respectively Our team has recently demonstrated that ClbA can sustain siderophores biosynthesis, and replaces EntD, highlighting a connexion between multiple pathways and leading to the biosynthesis of distinct secondary metabolites in a given micro-organism. Because entD expression and siderophores synthesis are regulated by iron availability, we hypothesized that ClbA and colibactin are also regulated by iron availability. In this study, we show that transcription of clbA and colibactin production decreased in presence of high iron availability, and this regulation occurred through two pathways: dependent and independent on the two major regulators of iron homeostasis, FUR (Ferric Uptake Regulator) and RyhB. This regulation could allow a fine tuning production of siderophores and colibactin, and give an advantage in the establishment of intestinal tract colonization. The potential role of the colibactin in the establishment of intestinal tract colonization by E. coli constitutes the second part of my work.
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Sophie Tronnet. Régulation par le fer et rôle de la colibactine dans la colonisation du tube digestif par Escherichia coli. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30062⟩. ⟨tel-01810856⟩

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