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Élaboration in situ d’alliages de titane et de structures architecturées par fabrication additive : application aux dispositifs médicaux implantables

Abstract : The initial problematic arises from the fact that implant failure is often caused by a mismatch between the elastic properties of the bone and those of the implant. Nowadays, an increasing interest is given to this mechanical biocompatibility and led to the development of β-metastable titanium alloys that possess low Young’s modulus, about half that of the conventionally used Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Moreover, lattice structures are currently being the subject of many investigations with the aim of achieving low Young’s modulus and high strength. Their fabrication, with accurate control over the architecture, is made possible thanks to additive manufacturing processes and the several possibilities they offer: design freedom, reduced material usage rate, complex shapes, mass customisation... The present work focuses on the implementation of low modulus titanium alloy Ti-26Nb(at.%) by the means of selective laser melting. An in situ elaboration strategy, based on a mixture of elemental powders, is explored in order to allow potential composition adjustments and to overcome the unavailability of titanium alloy powders. The approach is carried out using two distinct powder morphologies, spherical and irregular. The effects of the numerous parameters of the process (laser power, speed, scanning strategy...) on homogeneity and porosity of the manufactured parts is quantified. A homogeneous alloy can be obtained subject to the use of suitable energy density levels and powder size distributions that take into account the respective fusion temperatures of both elements. Microstructure characterisation highlights a pronounced texture resulting from the scanning strategy. The elaborated samples display a low Young’s modulus associated with a high strength, and hence a favourable strength to elastic modulus ratio compared to the reference cast alloy. Furthermore, an optimization algorithm is developed and allows controlling the mechanical properties of a lattice structure with its geometrical parameters (radius, length and orientation of struts). The combined use of this low Young’s modulus titanium alloy with a lattice structure developed through this algorithm was applied to the design of a total hip prosthesis that was subjected to finite element simulations. Stress-shielding evaluation shows that, compared to a solid design, this kind of prosthesis permits to reduce stress-shielding significantly. By getting closer to a physiological model, this prosthesis can be qualified as “biomimetic” in terms of mechanical behaviour
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  • HAL Id : tel-01810095, version 1

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Marie Fischer. Élaboration in situ d’alliages de titane et de structures architecturées par fabrication additive : application aux dispositifs médicaux implantables. Génie des procédés. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0257⟩. ⟨tel-01810095⟩

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