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Effets de la macro-architecture du substrat sur l'activité et la différenciation des ostéoblastes

Abstract : In vivo, cells reside in a complex and three-dimensional microenvironment, with which they interact at multiple scales, from the nanometer (tropocollagen) to structures of several hundred of micrometers (trabeculae). However, most of our knowledge on cell physiology has been obtained from cells grown in Petri dishes, on plastic and in two dimensions. In those conditions, the spatial relationships between cells and their environment can only be deeply modified. Moreover, if the impact of substrate closure at a cellular level is particularly well documented, very few studies have shown its role at a tissue level (i.e. greater than 100 µm), and thus focused mostly on the matrix deposition rather than on the osteoblastic differentiation. In order to study the effects of substrate macroarchitecture on cells, primary mouse calvarial cells were seeded on hydroxyapatite-based bioceramics, made from wax molds by 3D printing. A first study was conducted on macroarchitectured substrates. These bioceramics have three patterns of different degrees of closure: semi-circular grooves (Wave), triangular grooves with 90° angle and triangular grooves with 45° angle. The tighter was the substrate geometry (45°> 90°> Wave), the faster was osteoblastic differentiation. This resulted in increased levels of gene and protein expression of osteocalcin and sclerostin, indicating the presence of osteocytes inside the tissue layed by cells. Moreover, in the tightest geometry (i.e. 45°), mineralized fibrous structures, oriented parallel to the bottom substrate were observed. This orientation was confirmed at the cellular level, with a similar orientation of stress fibers and a stretch of cell nuclei. Thus, the substrate macroarchitecture influences the cellular behavior by, most likely, modifying the intracellular signaling. These investigations were pursued with the development of a 3D model of osteogenesis under perfusion, in the BOSE 5270 ElectroForce® BioDynamic® bioreactor of the IVTV Equipex platform, to explore cell-substrate interactions in response to mechanical stress (shear forces). Tissue deposition was particularly abundant in the triangular pores with 45° angles, confirming our previous observations and suggesting that this geometry was able to promote osteoblast differentiation.Our results could lead to breakthroughs in the understanding of the bone biology but also in the design of innovative implants for the repair of bone defects, with a stimulated osseointegration throught the presence of structures with closed geometries, such as triangular grooves with 45° angles.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01810064
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 7, 2018 - 2:19:06 PM
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Laura Juignet. Effets de la macro-architecture du substrat sur l'activité et la différenciation des ostéoblastes. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSES060⟩. ⟨tel-01810064⟩

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