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Etude physiologique de la dormance des bourgeons chez le cerisier doux (Prunus avium L.)

Abstract : Among fruit tree species, dormancy is a key period determining the success of flowering and fruit producing. Dormancy is tightly regulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. It can be divided in two main phases: endodormancy (“true dormancy”) and ecodormancy (“environmental dormancy”). Endodormancy is characterized by a total incapacity of buds to burst, even in conditions proper to growth. Winter chilling enables the end of endodormancy, necessary for flowering and fruit production. Chilling requirements, necessary amount of chill for endodormancy release, are genetically fixed and relatively elevated in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties compared to other species. In a climate change context, chilling requirements may not be entirely fulfilled and lead to drastic economic losses. The objective of this work is to increase the knowledge on the pathways involved in endodormancy release. The study relies on a panel of varieties contrasted for their chilling requirements, varying from a very low chill cultivar ‘Cristobalina’ to a high chill cultivar ‘Fertard’. Metabolomics and molecular studies, and exogenous molecules supply were used for dormancy deciphering. Hormonal pathway, oxidative stress and sugar pathway seem to have different roles. Sugar pathway enables to have an overview of the metabolic activity, and may be used as molecular markers to identify dormancy phases. Hormonal pathway has a role on growth control but no causal link with dormancy release was assessed. Major results concern the role of oxidative stress, with low chill cultivars in a more oxidized status than high chill cultivars. Moreover, RNAseq data enable the identification of key genes controlling dormancy and confirms the hypothesis on mechanisms involved. These results will be crucial for breeding new verities well adapted to future climatic conditions.
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Rémi Beauvieux. Etude physiologique de la dormance des bourgeons chez le cerisier doux (Prunus avium L.). Sciences agricoles. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0873⟩. ⟨tel-01809091⟩

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