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Élaboration de nanocomposites céramiques carbures/nitrures à partir de polymères

Abstract : In the present work, the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route has been investigated to prepare silicon carbide (SiC), silicon carbonitride (SiCN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) matrix (nano)composites in which transition metal-containing (nano)phases (Ti or Zr) are distributed. This approach has been applied to produce bulk materials. In the first chapter, we develop a literature review on the definition and the different types of nanocomposites, the different strategies to prepare them with a particular focus on the PDCs route and the targeted applications in the nuclear and concentrating solar system energy field. In a second chapter, the synthesis experimental protocols and the various methods to characterize the materials at each step of their preparation have been described. The third chapter focuses on the Si-C-Ti compositional system which displays potential to be used in the fuel cladding of the 4th generation of nuclear fission reactor. The precursors are prepared by mixing titanium (Ti)-based nanofillers and a hyperbranched polycarbosilane named allyhydridopolycarbosilanes (AHPCS) to be cast into a green compact then pyrolyzed to generate bulk (nano)composites which represent multiphase materials according to the composition of the nanofillers. In particular, the active behavior of Ti nanopowders into the AHPCS significantly limit the volume shrinkage of the polymer during its pyrolysis at 1000°C under argon to form (nano)composites composed of titanium carbide, titanium silicide and silicon carbide phases. Their structure has been investigated in details and a preliminary study on helium implantation has been done on these materials. In the chapter IV, we considered the same system. Here, our objective was to focus on the chemistry of preceramic polymers to prepare single-source precursors called polytitanocarbosilanes. We investigated their chemistry and structure by solid-state NMR as well as their pyrolysis behavior by thermogravimetric analyses up to 1000°C under argon. Amorphous materials were generated at 1000°C. Titanium carbide nanocrystals precipitated during a further heat-treatment up to 1600°C in a silicon carbide matrix. Dense pieces were prepared by warm-pressing of polytitanocarbosilanes followed by pyrolysis of the green compact. Helium implantation tests have been done and compared with the results gained in chapter 3. In the fifth chapter, we followed the same strategy, with a more fundamental aspect, for (nano)composites prepared in the Si-N-M-(C) (M=Ti, Zr). The effect of the polymetallocarbosilazane formulation on the (nano)composite properties has been investigated by solid-state NMR analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The structural evolution of these materials has been investigated up to 1600°C under ammonia and nitrogen atmosphere. The final materials represent nanocomposites of the type nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 with nc, nanocrystals and a being amorphous after a pyrolysis at 1400°C. By increasing the temperature up to 1600°C, the matrix crystallized. The effect of zirconium instead of titnanium has been investigated. A preliminary study on the potential of these materials as solar absorber for concentrating solar power (CSP) is reported.
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Vanessa Proust. Élaboration de nanocomposites céramiques carbures/nitrures à partir de polymères. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT235⟩. ⟨tel-01809042⟩



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