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Efficacité mnésique et mécanisme d'intégration : applications chez l'adulte jeune et dans le vieillissement normal

Abstract : We tend to always underestimate our memory. We blame it for its mishaps but never praise it for its successes. Nonetheless, one must admit that memory has its flaws and its capacities, mostly regarding recollections, weaken with time and age. In the grounded cognition framework, memory is not just a tool to access our past. Memory is mainly turned towards the present and it helps us adapt to each moment of our daily lives thanks to the accumulation of the experiences we live and that become references. Memory is made up of sensori-motor traces of these experiences (Versace, Labeye, Badard, & Rose, 2009) and its effectiveness is thus defined by the potential of a situation to reactivate the properties stored in memory and that are relevant for the present situation. Knowledge emerges the reactivation from but the effectiveness of the reactivation depends mostly on the link between the different properties of an event at the moment of their encoding in memory. Within Act-in, a multiple-traces functional memory model (Versace et al., 2014), the formation of this link rests upon the integration mechanism.Several factors, such as performing an action or experiencing an emotion, are known to influence on memory effectiveness. However, this influence has only be rarely investigated in a grounded approach of memory. We formulated the hypothesis that the influence of these factors on memory reflects their impact on the integration mechanism. The first objective of this thesis was to assess if action and emotion were able to improve integration. This mechanism operates on different levels of association between the properties of an event: integration of the properties of an item and integration of the item to its context; the work reported in the present document aimed to identify a clear pattern regarding the effects of action and emotion on these different levels.Finally, we support the hypothesis formulated by several authors (e.g. Benjamin, 2000) according to which the memory difficulties encountered in normal aging are caused by a deficit in the formation of associations between the different elements of an event in memory. The associative deficit can be translated in terms of an integration deficit and our last objective was then to assess if action and emotion, through their influence on integration, could reduce the memory deficits observed in older adults. To test these hypotheses, we used a paradigm designed to evaluate the performances on the different levels of integration in one individual manipulating at the same time the actions performed by the participants at encoding or the emotional valence of the material both in young and older adults.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 5, 2018 - 4:31:07 PM
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Anthony Macri. Efficacité mnésique et mécanisme d'intégration : applications chez l'adulte jeune et dans le vieillissement normal. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2102⟩. ⟨tel-01808446⟩

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