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Les concepts de l'électricité au collège en Syrie : Approche exploratoire des programmes et des manuels scolaires syriens

Abstract : The current studies are interested in different physics concepts which are related to the electricity and teaching these concepts at schools in Syria. Sometimes, these concepts are difficult to understand by the students, moreover, to the teachers to teach. These concepts are formally being taught to fifth class at Syrian schools. In the beginning, the goal of this research was to study the different ways to present the notions of electricity in the knowledge of reference. Therefore, we have chosen three university works of the electricity for this research. Then we have examined the choice which was taken by the institution to teach this notion. We specify that we are interested in the content of choices and also in the methods of their teaching suggested in the program of pre-university education in Syria. Afterwards, we also have viewed the choices which are existed in textbooks of the 5th,6th, 7th, 8th,and 9th class in Syria which are equivalent to the 6th , 4th, 3th, and CM2 class in France. Moreover, the aim of this research is to figure out an idea about the opinions of teachers who are considered the key players in this renovation. For this, a sample of 30 physics teachers at schools in Syria have answered a written questionnaire about the teaching of different concepts of the electricity. The goal is to study the conceptions and the representations on the electricity for their students. Besides, the difficulties encountered such concept especially with regard to various didactic notions recommended to teach these concepts at schools. Finally, our study shows that despite the big support in the programs and the textbooks on the importance of addressing the concepts of electricity with an experimental method, the use of experimental and analogue in the teaching at schools remain minus in Syria. Thus, in order to know pedagogical and epistemological concepts of teachers in their approaches while teaching electricity, we have constructed the data by a questionnaire of 30 teachers. The answers to this questionnaire were analyzed by two perspectives, the pedagogic and didactics perspectives. As for the pedagogical feature analysis, a grid was built around privileged methods of representation by the masters and around the roles reserved for the teachers and the students. In parallel, we have checked their mastering level of the concepts in science education. So the teachers have said that to introduce the concepts of electricity they had specialized ample room for experimental activities when the circumstances are appropriate. The analysis carried on the textbooks was made by using analytical framework, the results of analysis of these manuals show that the implementation of proposals for an experimental approach with a modeled recourse remained under valuable in the latter. Moreover, the study of this questionnaire tells us that for teachers this experimental process in connection with an electricity investigative approach is hard to be applied in teacher practice. The program will develop the concept of scientific thought in electrical connection with experimentation and modeling have been a little consideration in textbooks and are hardly stable in teachers 'practice. There is no room for discussion that the lack of laboratory tools and the overcrowded classrooms could be an argument to weaken experimental activities in the majority of current electricity.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 5, 2018 - 8:51:28 AM
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Chaza Cheikh. Les concepts de l'électricité au collège en Syrie : Approche exploratoire des programmes et des manuels scolaires syriens. Education. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2174⟩. ⟨tel-01807670⟩

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