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Functional analysis of active DNA demethylation in tomato

Abstract : DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that lead to stable and heritable changes in gene expression without alteration on DNA sequence. DNA methylation refers to the addition of a methyl group to the fifth position of the cytosine ring. In recent years, DNA methylation is becoming more and more widely studied, because of its importance in mammals and plants. Methylated cytosines distribution can be determined across the genome at single-nucleotide resolution, that is methylome, using whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-seq) approaches. [ ] Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and the main model to study the development and ripening process of climacteric fleshy fruit. Recent studies have now shown that the development and ripening of fleshy fruits relies on the establishment and maintenance of differential transcription patterns and complex regulatory pathways that involve both genetic and hormonal controls are operating at these developmental phases. However, it appears that a full understanding of fruit development and ripening will not be achieved based only on genetic models as suggested by recent studies, which showing an important decrease in global methylation level and demethylation at specific promoters during fruit ripening. [ ] In conclusion, the observations presented in this work provide a framework for analysis of the molecular mechanism of DNA demethylation during fruit ripening of tomato. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the knock down SlDML2 on the trancriptome, metaoblom and DNA methylation in the promoter analysis. The large transcriptional reprogramming that occured in mutant during fruit ripeing was correlated alterations in DNA methylation. Here we highlight the central role of active DNA demethylation during tomato fruit ripening. In addition to a general role in the regulation of genes directly involved in several metabolic pathways, we also found that several transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators are also likely under direct methylation control. However, we could not establish a district relationship between DNA reduction of DNA methylation and induction of gene expression, as not all DEGs containing a type-a DMRs (decreased DNA methylation during fruit ripening) do not correspond to genes normally induced in WT and repressed in transgenic plants. Some were corresponding to an opposite situation and in a few cases more complex methylation pattern (several DMRs) were also found. Indeed these conclusions are based on methylation analysis obtained in another variety. They might however reflect the situation of WVA106 fruits, although some variations are expectable when the methylome of DML RNAi fruits will be analyzed. Hence the relationship between DNA demethylation and gene expression might be more complex than expected, and not limited to the starting hypothesis of this work: DNA demethylation is an absolute requirement for the expression of critical ripening induced genes. This is indeed clearly in this study, but the analysis presented here also suggest that DNA demethylation might also be necessary for the repression of several genes as well. In addition, from the rencent study in Arabidopsis, ROS1 were found preferentially targets transposable elements (TEs) which are closer to protein coding genes and intergenic regions, which suggesting that ROS1 may prevent DNA methylation spreading from TEs to nearby genes. While in tomato, as our analysis, we found the methylation level of promoter of a number of genes was altered during fruit ripening, therefore, through methylome analysis, we will also get the preference of DNA methylation on TE, this analysis will give us idea that demethylation in fleshy fruit may has other distinct function as it is in Arabidopsis.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01806333, version 1



Ruie Liu. Functional analysis of active DNA demethylation in tomato. Vegetal Biology. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0273⟩. ⟨tel-01806333⟩



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