Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Theses

Etude des réponses de la moule Mytilus spp exposée à des stress métallique et thermique durant les stades embryo-larvaires

Abstract : Coastal marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic and natural pressures that place aquatic organisms in multi-stress situations. The aim of this doctoral work was to assess the impact and better understand the adaptation mechanisms of mussel early life stages exposed to two major environmental factors : metallic pollution and increasing temperatures in coastal marine waters. The effects induced by exposure to two model metal pollutants (Cu and Ag) and moderatethermal stress alone or in combination were evaluated on the early life stages of development of two mussel species : Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulisas well as their hybrids. Our results show a significant increase in the percentageof malformed D-larvae with increasing temperature. Moreover, Ag is significantly more toxic than Cu for larvae. In addition, the toxicity of metals increases with increasing temperature. Co-exposure to metals and a moderate temperature increases the antioxidant activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and increases cellular content of metallothioneinsand lipid peroxidation. At a higher temperature of 22 °C, a significant decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes is observed. DNA damage in M. galloprovincialis larvae was evaluated using the comet assay with and without Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase treatment. Co-exposure to metals and/ortemperature increase significantly increased DNA lesions on mussel larvae, witha more pronounced effect on oxidative damage. It has also been shown that Cuand Ag are accumulated differently in the larvae as a function of the exposure temperature. The study of the gene expression by RT-qPCR of 18 genes involvedin antioxidant defenses, DNA repair, apoptosis, proteolysis, transcription, thermal stress and metal detoxification was conducted in D-larvae of M. galloprovincialis.Under moderate thermal stress, a tendency of over expression of the cell defense pathways is observed. However, in the case of metallic and thermal co-expositions, the pathways of apoptosis and cellular alteration are rather induced. A pluginand macro were developed for the evaluation and characterization of behavior oflarvae of M. galloprovincialis. A significant increase in the maximum speed of D larvaewith increasing temperature is observed without affecting the mean velocity. In contrast, exposure to Cu and Ag at 22 °C significantly increases average and maximum larval speed. Under controlled conditions at 18 °C, larvae mainly follow rectilinear trajectories (88 %). With increasing temperature and/or exposure to metals, circular trajectories increase considerably at the expense of rectilinear trajectories. These changes in behavior may be related to the induction of malformations but also to the modulation of neuronal activity. Thus, a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the larvae is observed following exposure to a temperature gradient and/or metals. Viable and normally developed D-larvae were obtained by hybridization of M. galloprovincialis and M.edulis. Larvae of M. edulis are more sensitive to temperature than larvae of M. galloprovincialis.No significant sensitivity differences between species are observed whatever the metal used. Moreover, the hybrid larvae from female M. galloprovincialis are more tolerant to the increase of temperature compared to the hybrid larvae issues from rom female of M. edulis.
Complete list of metadatas

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01806326
Contributor : Abes Star :  Contact
Submitted on : Saturday, June 2, 2018 - 1:03:14 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:05:54 AM

File

BOUKADIDA_AMMAR_KHOULOUD_2017....
Version validated by the jury (STAR)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-01806326, version 1

Collections

Citation

Khouloud Boukadida Ammar. Etude des réponses de la moule Mytilus spp exposée à des stress métallique et thermique durant les stades embryo-larvaires. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0571⟩. ⟨tel-01806326⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

306

Files downloads

703