Imagerie, manipulation et contact électronique atome par atome sur la surface Si(100) : H avec le microscope à effet tunnel basse température à 4 pointes

Abstract : The construction of electronic circuits of atomic section is one of the great challenges of the ultimate nanoelectronics. To build an atomic electronic circuit, it is necessary first to develop the dedicated instrument to build up and then to choose the support surface stabilizing this circuit. On the Au(111) surface prepared in ultra-vacuum, we implemented and stabilized the very first LT-UHV-4 STM. This STM 4-probes microscopes scanning at the same time and independently the same surface was built for the CEMES by the ScientaOmicron company. On Au(111), we reproduced all the experimental results obtained on the best LT-UHV-STM with one probe such as the precision in roughness of 2 pm, the IV characteristics recording without any average on a single atom for several tens of minutes and the atomic manipulation following the pulling, sliding and pushing modes of a single gold atom on the surface. Once this optimization was carried out, we applied our LT-UHV-4 STM to the surface of Si(100):H, probable support of the future electronic atomic circuits. The choice of this medium is discussed in detail before recording and analysis of the STM images. The samples used come either from the semi-industrial full-wafer silicon process developed at CEA-LETI or from their in-situ preparation, which takes place directly in the preparation chamber of the LT-UHV-4 STM. We have taken care to interpret the STM images of the surface Si(100):H in order to locate the position of each hydrogen atom. The atomic lithography by STM has been exploited, by using one tip from our LT-UHV-4 STM, by atom-per-atom vertical mode and faster scanning mode. The last makes atomic writing less accurate. We have constructed our own atomic wires and then atomic contact pads, small squares of Si(100)H defeated by a few nm sides. The leakage currents with 2 probes at the atomic scale have thus been able to be measured on the surface of Si(100):H between two of these pads. To prepare the atomic contacts at least 2 probes on an atomic wire or on nanometric contact pads, we studied in detail the different types of contact points STM-single dangling bond showing the difficulty of reaching a quantum of conductance at contact, due to a possible bands bending. It is therefore difficult without a complementary force measurement to determine, starting from the tunnel contact, the different steps of the mechanical, electronic contact at the chemical contact. Our results open the way to the characterization of electronic circuits constructed atom-by-atom and at atomic scale on the surface of a semiconductor.
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Delphine Sordes. Imagerie, manipulation et contact électronique atome par atome sur la surface Si(100) : H avec le microscope à effet tunnel basse température à 4 pointes. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30048⟩. ⟨tel-01805861⟩

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