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Étude des interactions trophiques entre les communautés de carabes et de graines adventices sous l'angle d'un système proie-prédateur

Abstract : Weed flora limits crop yields therefore herbicides inputs are important in order to manage weeds. Weeds are at the bottom of the trophic pyramid in agroecosystems, and this explains partly the decrease of biodiversity. Alternatives to manage weeds are studied to reduce negative effect of herbicides on the environment in order to preserve biodiversity. For example, weeds could be managed with granivorous species. Indeed, weed seeds are the origin of the weed community, thus seed consumption could limit weed abundance in cultivated fields. In agroecosystems, several taxa are known to be granivorous such as vertebrates (birds and rodents) and invertebrates (ground beetles). Ground beetles are considered as the main granivorous taxa in agroecosystems and are abundant in temperate agroecosystems. The main goal of this PhD was to study trophic interactions between communities, weed seed and ground beetles, with a prey-predator system in order to estimate the role of ground beetles through their seed consumption in weed seeds management. First, we established a protocol with standardize steps in order to restrain variables to weed seed species at ground beetles’ species. A similar protocol has been adapted to replicate experimentation with the same individuals to measure consumption at different weed seed densities. We then studied interactions between weed seeds and ground beetles with two research axes. We first explored interspecific variation of consumption on the same weed seeds species, Viola arvensis, by ground beetles. Body mass and ratios between mandible length and labrum width had no relation with seed consumption by ground beetles. Thus, other factors were suggested to explain consumption variation such as gut symbionts of ground beetles or preferences for specific weed seed species. Secondly, we measured consumption of 42 weed seed species by four ground beetles to identify abilities in weed seed consumption for these beetles and to explore feeding strategy according to two seed characteristics, seed mass (size) and seed lipid content. Generalism degrees are different according to ground beetles’ species and seem affected by physiological characteristics in both communities. Finally, to assess the potential in weed seed management of ground beetles we determined functional response to four ground beetles on two weed seeds species. We determined type II response for all species (male and female) tested, except for females of P.rufipes. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as, under natural conditions, generalist predators meet many alternatives prey and it could influence functional response type. We showed that there are many complex interactions between weed seed and ground beetles communities, especially due to a wide range of diversity in physiological characteristics in both communities. The potential of ground beetles to regulate seeds must be more precisely explored to evaluate their agronomic interest in weed management.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01804985
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Submitted on : Friday, June 1, 2018 - 12:09:06 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 17, 2020 - 1:49:59 AM
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Paul Deroulers. Étude des interactions trophiques entre les communautés de carabes et de graines adventices sous l'angle d'un système proie-prédateur. Interactions entre organismes. Université de La Rochelle, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LAROS030⟩. ⟨tel-01804985⟩

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