On-line non-intrusive partial discharges detection in aeronautical systems

Abstract : The development of power electronics in recent years has led to increase power density and to decrease pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage inverter cost. These developments have expanded the use of power converters for variable speed drive applications which enabled the development of the concept of "more electric aircraft". This concept consists in replacing one of energy carriers (pneumatic or hydraulic) with electrical energy. However, the deployment of electrical energy has increased the onboard voltage, which leads to premature aging of onboard electrical equipment. The shape of the PWM voltage consists of pulse trains. With the application of these pulses, the voltage is no longer homogeneously distributed along the coil. In this case, large differences in potential between the strands are present. In addition, another important parameter derived from the winding type motor used in industry. The random winding is the most common technique for low voltage motors due to its lower cost. The risk generated by this type of winding is that the first and the last turns of the first coil can be facing one another. In this case, up to 80% of the voltage will be supported by a few tens of microns of enamel, and existing insulation systems are not designed to withstand such severe constraints. The use of long cable connecting the inverter to the motor can also cause significant overvoltage at the motor terminals. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the cable behaves as a transmission line to which the motor coils is not adapted in terms of impedance. In addition, these large potential differences associated with low pressures in the depressurized areas of the aircraft, may cause the occurrence of partial discharge. Partial discharges are electrical discharges that short-circuited partially the gap between two conductors. There are many detection methods well known under AC and DC voltage, however, in the case of the detection under PWM like voltage in low-voltage motors, the detection is much more complex. Partial discharge signals are embedded in the electromagnetic noise generated by the switching. The aim of this thesis is to develop a detection method and filtering method enabling a non-intrusive and an "on-line" partial discharges detection in the aeronautical field in order to qualify the electrical insulation systems used in aircraft.
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Cédric Abadie. On-line non-intrusive partial discharges detection in aeronautical systems. Electric power. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30041⟩. ⟨tel-01804062⟩

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