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Hydrodynamic instabilities of erodible or highly flexible substrates

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the experimental and theoretical investigations of four instabilitiesassociated with the emergence of regular patterns over erodible/flexible substrates, andrelated to hydrodynamics over a modulated relief.First, the instability of a flexible sheet clamped at both ends and submitted to a permanentwind is investigated. The flat sheet solution is unstable towards propagative waves, forstrong enough wind. We experimentally study the selection of frequency and wavenumberas a function of the wind velocity. These quantities obey simple scaling laws derived froma linear stability analysis of the problem. This phenomenon may be applied for energyharvesting.Second, an explanation is proposed for the giant ripples observed by spacecraft Rosettaat the surface of the comet 67P. We show that the outgassing flow across a porous surfacegranular layer and the strong pressure gradient associated with the day-night alternanceare responsible for thermal superficial winds. We show that these unexpected patterns areanalogous to ripples emerging on granular beds submitted to viscous shear flows. Linearstability analysis of the problem quantitatively predicts the emergence of bedforms at theobserved wavelength and their propagation. This description provides a reliable tool topredict the erosion and accretion processes controlling the evolution of small solar systembodies.Third, we propose a model for rhythmic, dune-like patterns observed on SputnikPlanum of Pluto. Their emergence and evolution are related to the differential condensation/sublimation of nitrogen ice. We show that the temperature and pressure in Pluto’satmosphere are almost homogeneous and steady, and that heat flux from the atmospheredue to convection and turbulent mixing is responsible for the emergence of these sublimationpatterns, in contrast to the penitentes instability due to solar radiation.Last, we report an analytical model for the aeolian ripple instability by considering theresonant grain trajectories over a modulated sand bed, taking the collective effect in thetransport layer into account. The model is tested against existing numerical simulationsthat match experimental observations.
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Pan Jia. Hydrodynamic instabilities of erodible or highly flexible substrates. Physics [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCC245⟩. ⟨tel-01803993⟩

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