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Caractérisation multi-échelle du tissu osseux : Application à l'ostéogénèse imparfaite

Abstract : Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease, whose main feature is more brittle bone. Genetic analysis identified mutations making the bone more prone to fracture. As the bone is a multistructrural material, while also being a living tissue, the symptoms and consequences of the disease are numerous. During this thesis, the focus was made on a first approach on the differences of nanostructures between the various mutations causing OI. More specifically, a new use of Raman spectroscopy was made in order to study the collagenic matrix as well as the mineral component. It was found that mutations could be gathered in three groups:•Mutations implied directly in the collagen synthesis and in its early modification (OI genetical type III, VII et VIII),•Mutations implied directly in the mineralization of the collagenic matrix, with an hypermineralization of this matrix (OI genetical type VII),•Mutations causing OI genetical type XI, characterized by a high rate of carbonate substitution, implying a low remodeling rate.On the other hand, the living aspect of bone tissue was studied, with a focus made on the resorption phase of the remodeling cycle. It was found on healthy adults bone that the cells were not behaving randomly, but target osteons with lower mechanical and mineral properties. Moreover, the behavior of those cells is not altered by OI: it was found that the cells had the same not-random behavior on bone of OI patients.
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Agathe Echard. Caractérisation multi-échelle du tissu osseux : Application à l'ostéogénèse imparfaite. Autre. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEC042⟩. ⟨tel-01803545⟩

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