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Elaboration et caractérisation mécanique, hygrique et thermique de composites bio-sourcés

Abstract : In response to environmental concerns, the use of hemp concrete has been developed in recent years and has shown its efficiency from a hygrothermal point of view. Its life cycle analysis underlines the environmental interest of hemp and shows that the most impacting component is the binder, usually lime-based. The aim of this thesis is to develop hemp-based composites by substituting lime with a less impacting mineral matrix. Several formulations are made with different binder matrices and different hemp content. On the one hand, the ThermO® commercial binder is used to produce "classic" hemp concrete, which are used as a comparative reference. On the other hand, binder matrices are developed based on washing mud fines. Claytec® commercial earth is also considered. After presenting the different raw materials selected for this study, the ThermO® binder is characterized with several water ton binder ratios. The washing mud fine stabilisation is investigated regarding mechanical resistance objectives. A stabilization with 5% of portland cement coupled with 5% of ThermO® is selected for the following development. This formulation does not significantly affect the thermal conductivity of the binder matrix, while allowing to achieve the fixed mechanical objectives. The composites made with the various selected binders have hemp I binder ratios ranging between 0.4 and 0.75, conventional ratio for roof, wall and floor applications. They are implemented by compact ion, which leads to densities ranging from 370 to 61 5 kg/m3 and porosities ranging from 70 to 81%. The mechanical. Thermal and hygric behaviors of the composites are investigated. The measured mechanical performances meet the requirements of the professional rules Construire en Chanvre, even for composites made with unstabilized fines. The sorption isotherms obtained are class II or III sigmoid, with higher water contents for composites made with ThermO®. The MBV values obtained show that the composites made with fines and with Caytec® earth are better hygric regulators than the composites made with ThermO® binder, respectively classified as excellent and as very good hygric regulators. The thermal performances of the composites allow a use in distributed insulation. At the dry point, the thermal conductivity mainly depends on the density, without impact of the type of binder. As ambient relative humidity increases, the thermal conductivity of ThermO®, binder-based composites is more impacted than that of other composites in connection with sorption isotherms. This study thus shows the relevance of the development of composites formulated with washing mud fine as a substitute tor lime.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 28, 2018 - 6:26:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01801946, version 1

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Brahim Mazhoud. Elaboration et caractérisation mécanique, hygrique et thermique de composites bio-sourcés. Matériaux. INSA de Rennes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ISAR0024⟩. ⟨tel-01801946⟩

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