Mise en place d'un plan de sélection génétique pour l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata

Abstract : In the context of an increasing demand and a declining supply from fisheries, worldwide aquaculture production of abalone has greatly increased in the last decades. Selective breeding has been initiated to improve growth in major abalone species. In France, the abalone production was initiated 30 years ago and struggles to develop. This CIFRE PhD co-financed by France Haliotis, the only French hatchery in activity, was initiated to study early domestication process of farmed abalone population and to provide knowledge required to design a selective breeding program adapted to this company. Wild and farmed populations were compared, showing that, until 2013, farmed and wild abalone presented similar performances. However, lower physiological and behavioural responses to farm stressor were observed, as well as less response to predator contact.Estimations of genetic parameters were performed using a novel set of 123 SNP markers in order to successfully assign parentage in a single cohort resulting from the reproduction of 40 broodstock reared under common conditions over 4 years. Heritability estimates were obtained for a large number of production traits, indicating that individual selection of live weight when 42-month-old would lead to significant gains. A selective breeding program suitable for France Haliotis production system has been proposed to improve the weight at 4 years. The analysis of genetic correlations suggest that a multi-criteria and selective breeding program to improve growth, meat yield and to control reproductive allocation could also be established, but would be more complex to implement
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Sébastien Lachambre. Mise en place d'un plan de sélection génétique pour l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata. Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0137⟩. ⟨tel-01800091⟩

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