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The employment conditions of native-born people with immigrant parents : a comparison between France and The United States

Abstract : The comparison between France and the United States shows how the inequalities in terms of employment conditions between descendants of immigrants and of native-born persons differ.This thesis proposes an empirical and comparative analysis of the employment conditions of immigrants’ offspring in France and in the United States. The goal is to better characterise the labour market integration of immigrants’ offspring, taking a multidimensional approach. The comparison between France and the United States highlight the dimensions of inequalities in terms of employment conditions between the descendants of immigrants and of native-born in each of country, henceforth improving the characterisation of these inequalities. Our analysis explores overeducation in a first chapter, in a second chapter, three aspects of the socio-economic security of job quality and in a final chapter, the distribution of wage differentials. Although differences in terms of employment conditions exist in both countries to the detriment of immigrants’ offspring, these differences do not appear to be the result of inequalities but rather of structural effects such as differences in age or education level between the two groups. The occupations and sectors of activity in which descendants of immigrants work also explain these differences. The results show similarities between the two countries. Once the selection bias to access employment is taken into account, having immigrant parents has no significant effect on overeducation (chapter 1) but a positive and significant effect on wages (chapter 2). On the other hand, the two countries differ on several points. In France, having immigrant parents significantly restricts the access to employment and lowers job security. However, in the United States, there is a negative effect only on working time (chapter 2). This thesis advocates for the consideration of the heterogeneity that exists within the population immigrants’ offspring, according to their parents’country of origin. Indeed, contradictory effects according to the parents’ country of origin may lead to non-significant effects at the aggregate level, as is the case for overeducation, for example. The final chapter shows a wider wage gap for low-wage workers in the two countries. Nevertheless, the major difference between the two countries is that the unobservable component contributes to narrowing the wage gap between natives and of immigrants but to increasing it in France.
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Charlotte Levionnois. The employment conditions of native-born people with immigrant parents : a comparison between France and The United States. Economics and Finance. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA01E042⟩. ⟨tel-01800083⟩

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