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Towards the industrial use of synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography for 3D integration failure analysis

Abstract : This PhD thesis aims at developing new characterization techniques for 3D integration in microelectronics. More specifically, the focus is set on recent ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamlines, both for 3D imaging by tomography and for strain measurements by Bragg diffraction.3D integration aims at reducing the global microelectronics devices footprint and connections length, by stacking the dies on top of one another instead of setting them one to another. This new geometry however requires new connections, such as copper pillars (CuP) and copper pads, used in hybrid bonding. The monitoring of their fabrication process requires their imaging in three dimensions, and the measure of the strain inside them. Those measurements must be conducted on large areas (100 µm2), with high resolution (500 nm for strain and 100 nm for imaging). Moreover, given the industrial context of this study, the characterization methods must be as routine and automatic as possible.To answer those needs, several techniques have been developed in this work.Two 3D imaging techniques have been made compatible with the requirements of 3D integration characterization. A Slice and View procedure has been implemented inside a single beam PFIB, leading to large volumes 3D automated imaging. The tomography workflow accessible on the ID6A beamline of the ESRF has been adapted, in order to limit the human intervention and beam times. This leads to possible statistical measurements on this beamline.Strain measurements have been conducted on the ID01 beamline of the ESRF, on silicon and copper stacks meant for direct and hybrid bonding. They allowed for simultenous local strain measurements in two independent layers of silicon, and textit{in situ} measurements in copper.In this work, we show the possibilities of synchrotron based techniques (here, tomography and Bragg diffraction) for the chacracterization of 3D integration devices. We show that, provided some adjustments, these techniques can be used routinely for the microelectronics field.
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Alexandra Fraczkiewicz. Towards the industrial use of synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography for 3D integration failure analysis. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAY088⟩. ⟨tel-01799568⟩

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