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Nanotubes de titanate comme nanovecteurs polyvalents : radiosensibilisants du cancer de la prostate et sondes pour l'imagerie nucléaire

Abstract : Currently, the systemic injections of drugs reach very weakly tumor sites and large doses are thus administered causing adverse side effects. The new implementations of nanoparticles in the medical field offer new strategies to vectorize an active substance in diseased cells. This work is focused on the prostate cancer, which is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide.Titanate nanotubes (TiONts) are synthetized by a hydrothermal process and have average dimensions of about 170 nm in length, 10 nm in outer diameter and also have an internal cavity of 4 nm in diameter. Their needle-shaped morphology allows them to be internalized more easily into cells without inducing cytotoxicity while providing a radiosensitization effect.In the present manuscript are described two TiONts-based nanohybrids which were developed with a view to fight against prostate cancer by intratumoral (IT) injection and a particular attention was paid on their elaboration. These new nanomedicines were extensively characterized by different techniques (TEM, TGA, ζ potential, XPS, UV visible, IR and Raman spectroscopies).The first approach that has been developed consists in combining TiONts with a therapeutic agent (docetaxel, DTX), widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer, and a chelating agent (DOTA) allowing the radiolabeling with 111In radionuclide to monitor TiONts biodistribution by SPECT/CT. The surface of TiONts was beforehand coated with a siloxane (APTES) and linked to a heterobifunctional polymer (PEG3000) to create well-dispersed and biocompatible TiONts. In vitro tests demonstrated that the association between TiONts and DTX had cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (22Rv1 and PC-3 cells) whereas TiONts without DTX did not. The results of in vivo SPECT/CT imaging are also presented as well as first irradiation tests in Swiss nude mice after IT injection on PC-3 tumors. Biological tests showed that more than 70% of TiONts nanovectors were retained within the tumor for at least 7 days. In addition, tumor growth of mice receiving nanohybrids with radiotherapy was significantly slower than that of mice receiving free DTX. After this first study, other organic molecules were successfully grafted to the surface of TiONts to improve colloidal stability and biocompatibility of nanotubes: AHAMTES, catechols (LDOPA, DHCA and NDOPA) and phosphonates (PHA, ALD and a phosphonate heterobifunctional polymer-based: (HO)2 (O)P PEG NH2). Moreover, the influence of different PEG lengths has been considered on the nanomedicine efficacy by two different pathways. The grafting of these PEG in an organic medium (PyBOP) was very promising to improve their graft ratio and their colloidal stability.In a second approach and in order to improve the radiosensitizing effect, DTDTPA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coupled with TiONts in the presence of DTX. This novel combination aims at retaining these AuNPs into the tumor via the TiONts to enhance the radiotherapeutic effect. The nanohybrid was also detectable by X-ray and SPECT/CT imaging through AuNPs-DTDTPA. Preliminary in vitro results showed once again that our final nanohybrid had a satisfactory cytotoxic activity. Biodistribution and tumor growth studies were also realized on PC-3 xenografted tumors on mice.These functionalized-TiONts could thus become a new tool in the field of biomedicine to fight against prostate cancer and appear as versatile nanovectors.
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Alexis Loiseau. Nanotubes de titanate comme nanovecteurs polyvalents : radiosensibilisants du cancer de la prostate et sondes pour l'imagerie nucléaire. Radiochimie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCK012⟩. ⟨tel-01799566⟩

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