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Développement de la transduction microonde appliquée à la détection d'ammoniac : du nanomatériau au capteur large bande, compréhension des mécanismes et influence des traces d'eau

Abstract : The main objective of this thesis is to propose an analysis of the microwave transduction specificities in the framework of ammonia sensing applications. The two main features of this transduction are its broadband characterization (1 to 8 GHz) as well as its sensitive materials (dielectrics). This transduction method is based on the interaction between a polluting gas and a sensitive material deposited on the surface of a microwave-specific propagating structure. The response of the sensor is not directly induced by the dielectric properties of the gaseous target molecule, but rather by those of the target species adsorbed on the surface of the sensitive material. This adsorption causes a modification of the sensor parameters measured by a vector network analyzer. Unlike more conventional transducers such as conductimetry, this principle works at room temperature with any type of material, including electrical insulators.The first work carried out during this thesis led to the development of a new experimental bench adapted specifically for the study of microwave gas sensors by measuring the S-parameters in reflection and transmission modes. This development includes the design of two new generations of sensors, coated with metal oxides (iron or titanium oxides) commercially available or synthesized during the study. The first sensor comprises interdigital circuits while the second sensor is a trapezoidal resonator. The latter is characterized by a series of frequencies of interest regularly distributed between 1 and 8 GHz. The association of a mass spectrometer with the measurement bench allowed to follow the adsorption and desorption behavior of the target species which is ammonia (10-100 ppm), but also the behavior of the vector gas conventionally used, argon, and water initially adsorbed on the sensitive material or intentionally added during the experiment. The objective is to study the role of water as interfering with the detection of ammonia, the main target species. A third molecule of interest, ethanol, was also used during the experiments in order to estimate the possible differences in the detected molecules behaviors. The experimental results were exploited using specific data processing protocols established during this thesis. Temporal treatments were carried out to study the kinetic behavior of the sensor, while spectral treatments allowed to apprehend the broadband aspect of the sensor response in the presence of pollutants.The first major result is the significant increase in sensitivity to ammonia, which significantly lowered the detection threshold to ammonia concentrations in the 10 ppm range. Titanium dioxide has been identified as a good candidate for ammonia detection, with reflection coefficient variations up to 6 dB for 300 ppm. The role of the water initially adsorbed on the sensitive material has been elucidated, showing that its influence is significant only during the first few minutes of the experiments. Thus, it is possible to detect ammonia in the presence of residual moisture. The processes induced by the gaseous exposures and particularly by the carrier gas were identified, and confirmed that the sensor response was solely due to its interaction with the target molecules. Another major result is the definition of the operating conditions that are necessary for the establishment of the selectivity. Our theoretical analysis clearly demonstrated the interest of broadband measurements in terms of discrimination of target molecules. This analysis has been tested in multitarget experiments using ammonia, water and ethanol. These observations allowed to establish the specifications of a new generation of microwave sensors, guaranteeing systematic discrimination between these three molecules.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 24, 2018 - 10:30:19 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01798951, version 1

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Guillaume Bailly. Développement de la transduction microonde appliquée à la détection d'ammoniac : du nanomatériau au capteur large bande, compréhension des mécanismes et influence des traces d'eau. Chimie théorique et/ou physique. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCK029⟩. ⟨tel-01798951⟩

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