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Modélisation stochastique de systèmes biologiques multi-échelles et inhomogènes en espace

Abstract : The growing needs of precise predictions for complex systems lead to introducing stronger mathematical models, taking into account an increasing number of parameters added to time: space, stochasticity, scales of dynamics. Combining these parameters gives rise to spatial --or spatially inhomogeneous-- multiscale stochastic models. However, such models are difficult to study and their simulation is extremely time consuming, making their use not easy. Still, their analysis has allowed one to develop powerful tools for one scale models, among which are the law of large numbers (LLN) and the central limit theorem (CLT), and, afterward, to derive simpler models and accelrated algorithms. In that deduction process, the so-called hybrid models and algorithms have arisen in the multiscale case, but without any prior rigorous analysis. The question of hybrid approximation then shows up, and its consistency is a particularly important motivation of this PhD thesis.In 2012, criteria for hybrid approximations of some homogeneous regulation gene network models were established by Crudu, Debussche, Muller and Radulescu. The aim of this PhD thesis is to complete their work and generalize it afterward to a spatial framework.We have developed and simplified different models. They all are time continuous pure jump Markov processes. The approach points out the conditions allowing on the the one hand deterministic approximations by solutions of evolution equations of type reaction-advection-diffusion, and, on the other hand, hybrid approximations by hybrid stochastic processes. In the field of biochemical reaction networks, we establish a CLT. It corresponds to a hybrid approximation of a simplified homogeneous model (due to Crudu et al.). Then a LLN is obtained for a spatial model with two time scales. Afterward, a hybrid approximation is established, for a two time-space scales spatial model. Finally, the asymptotic behaviour in large population and long time are respectively presented for a model of cholera epidemic, through a LLN followed by the upper bound for compact sets, in the context of a corresponding large deviation principle (LDP).Interesting future works would be, among others, to study other spatial geometries, to generalize the CLT, to complete the LDP estimates, and to study complex systems from other fields.
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Mac Jugal Nguepedja Nankep. Modélisation stochastique de systèmes biologiques multi-échelles et inhomogènes en espace. Probabilités [math.PR]. École normale supérieure de Rennes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ENSR0012⟩. ⟨tel-01798408⟩

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