Caractérisation biochimique et structurale de la protéine IFITM3, un facteur de restriction antiviral du système immunitaire inné

Abstract : The host cell first line of defence against viral infections induces the production of interferons. These interferons are then released in the surrounding medium where they bind to target cells and induce the expression of hundreds of genes so called interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The interferon inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM are part of the products of these ISGs. IFITM1, 2 and 3 are antiviral factors able to restrict the replication of a broad variety of enveloped viruses, such as influenza virus, HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and Hepatitis C virus. These viruses enter in the host cell either by direct fusion with the cell membrane or by endocytosis. IFITM proteins contain two membrane regions for insertion or interaction with plasma and endolysosomal membranes where they block the fusion of virus particles with cellular membranes by a mechanism which is still undefined. In addition, their incorporation into new HIV virions, in virus producing cells, has been correlated with decreased infectivity.Among the IFITM protein family members, IFITM3 is the one showing the most recurrent antiviral effect in the different studies. Therefore it represents a good model to study the whole IFITM family.The determination of its structure and membrane topology is crucial to be able to clarify, through structure-based functional studies, the mechanism(s) by which IFITM3 interfere with the viral cycle.Here we characterized and we studied IFITM3 structure and membrane topology in a lipidic environment close to its native environment such as liposomes and nanodiscs. We demonstrated that IFITM3 can self-associate to form at least a dimer. Some higher order associations of IFITM3 have been observed after its reconstitution into liposomes and big size nanodiscs. We discovered by NMR in solution that the N-terminal region of IFITM3 contains a small helical region, never described until now, which could correspond to an internalization motif. We also observed by negative staining electron microscopy some liposomal membrane curvature changes that could be assigned to the presence of IFITM3 in these liposomes. And we discovered through TEVC experiments that IFITM3 addition in the extracellular environment of xenopus oocytes produces ion leaks through the oocyte membrane which could result either from membrane destabilization or from a pore formation.
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Géraldine Mayeux. Caractérisation biochimique et structurale de la protéine IFITM3, un facteur de restriction antiviral du système immunitaire inné. Biologie structurale [q-bio.BM]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAV007⟩. ⟨tel-01798230⟩

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