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Approches multiscalaires de l'érosion du volcan Merapi, Indonésie : contribution à la compréhension du déclenchement et de la dynamique des lahars

Abstract : The erosion of volcanic edifices is a series of geomorphological processes that occurs during, before or without eruption. This process also involves the term "lahar" which is characterized by dense mixtures of volcanic materials and water, rapidly flowing from a volcano with important spatio-temporal rheological changes. The erosion of volcanic edifices is still poorly understood, particularly because data collection in the field is difficult. However, lahars have caused at least 44,250 deaths from 1600 to 2010 of which 52%due to a single event in 1985 (Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia).This study proposes a multi-scalar approach to better understand the nature of the erosion of volcanic edifices, especially on lahar initiation process and dynamics. The eruption of the Merapi volcano(Indonesia) in 2010 was an opportunity to produce new data. The first part of this thesis focused on the lahar initiation process, was based on field data and laboratory experiments. The field work was intended to compare a volcanically disturbed watershed by the eruption of 2010 and an undisturbed watershed, by conducting in-situ observations and field instrumentation. In the laboratory, an experimental approach was performed using 8 different scenarios on a flume. The second part of the thesis related to the dynamics of two lahars in motion was conducted using coupling between video footage and seismic signal. Lahar deposits were also analyzed based on the chronology of the flows. Three years after the eruption of Merapi in 2010, the frequency of lahar occurrence decreased. However, juvenile ash fall deposits (volcanic ash) from another eruption of a nearby volcano (Kelud in East Java) in February 2014 resulted a significant increase of lahars occurrence. Lahars triggering process was also favored by a landslides occurring in the night of 6 to 7 December 2012, of which the deposit was connected to the thalweg. The dynamics of the two lahars were observed and filmed on 28 February and18 March 2014. Those lahars were divided into four phases: (1) hyperconcentrated flow, (2) the peak of debris flow, (3) lahar body, and (4) lahar tail. Video analysis and in-situ observation on active lahars allowed us to create detailed hydrographs indicating flow depth, velocity, discharge and the number of floated boulders. Lahar dynamics on different topography of the channel caused a very different seismic frequency. The formation of lahar deposits was correlated with the flow dynamics and required an in-situ observation for the validation of the interpretation.
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Sandy Budi Wibowo. Approches multiscalaires de l'érosion du volcan Merapi, Indonésie : contribution à la compréhension du déclenchement et de la dynamique des lahars. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01H044⟩. ⟨tel-01798159⟩

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