Gestion de crise : l'appropriation territoriale à l'épreuve des faits

Abstract : "Sir, my municipality does not go into the field of your study, certainly we have a stream which crosses the municipality and which floods it from time to time and we had an accident with a tanker, but apart from that we are exposed to no risk. "This small sentence pulled by the mail of a mayor shows to what extent the crisis management at the national level can be integrated in a fragmented way. She also underlines the current fragility of the municipalities in front of this complex problem, while the law on the modernization of the civil safety of 2004 places the elected representative municipal as a leading player of the crisis management. It is this central question which constitutes the problem of my thesis, made under the joint direction of Mr Pierre Pech and Mr Paul Durand from the university Paris 1 Pantheon - Sorbonne. Indeed, hardly of this report, my work of thesis leaned on an analysis of a corpus of data from the national bases handling potential and actual major risks, bases Gaspar and Aria, which allowed to select the panel of the municipalities of this survey.10 000 municipalities were requested on the metropolitan territory through an audit questionnaire taking into account :- The risk assessment;- The measures of crisis management organized;- The feeling of preparation of the Mayor. The choice of the targeted municipalities answers a logic of geographical, structural and environmental representativeness with regard to the protean exposure at the risks of our territories.703 municipalities are actually integrated into the study and a quantitative and qualitative interpretation allowed to establish if the latter were in capacity to manage a major crisis arising on their territory, if there were factors susceptible to influence this capacity of crisis management, and to establish if the municipal level is really the most relevant level of crisis management. The obtained results highlight that the metropolitan municipalities are just partially prepared to face a crisis and that the implication of the local elected representatives is to be perfected. On the other hand, there seems be a link between the size of the municipality and the capacity to manage a crisis. This report is to be put in parallel with the Japanese municipal model having faced the disasters of2011. During this crisis of unequalled scale, the capacity of the municipalities to face the crisis was the cornerstone of the process of immediate management. Yet, the Japanese model bases on municipal important structures, structured and well equipped. Without questioning the municipal structure, the heiress of a long republican tradition, but by joining the dynamics of the law on the new territorial organization of the republic, can we intend to position the problem of territorial crisis management in an above municipal level to win in coherence and inefficiency in front of protean threats pressing on our municipalities? This question is the proposal in which ends the thesis which diagnoses certain deficits in capacity to take care of the major risks of our French municipalities.
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Gilles Ahuir. Gestion de crise : l'appropriation territoriale à l'épreuve des faits. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01H038⟩. ⟨tel-01798063⟩

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