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Gender, migration and the Arab Spring : evidence from Egypt

Abstract : This thesis contributes to the literature on protests, women’s labor force participation and return migration. The first chapter examines the effects of the 2011 Egyptian protests on the relative labor market conditions of women using panel data from before and after the protests. Using Difference-in-Differences approach and a unique dataset on the Egyptian “martyrs", the results suggest that the 2011 protests have reduced intra-household differences in labor force participation between husband and wife, through an added-worker effect. The second chapter examines whether temporary international migration enables returnees to climb the occupational ladder compared to non-migrants. Using an instrumental variable approach, Difference-in-Differences and Difference-in-Differences matching techniques, the results suggest that return migration increases the probability of upward occupational mobility, in particular for returnees who belong to the upper end of the educational distribution. The third chapter examines the effects of the first and second waves of Egyptian protests, on voting outcomes during Egypt’s first free presidential elections. The main finding of this chapter is that higher exposure to protests’ intensity leads to a higher share of votes for former regime candidates, both during the first and second rounds of Egypt’s first presidential elections after the uprisings. Results also suggest that the protests led to a conservative backlash, alongside negative economic expectations, general dissatisfaction with government performance, decreasing levels of trust towards public institutions, and increasing recognition of limitations on civil and political liberties.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01794213
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Submitted on : Friday, May 18, 2018 - 12:07:07 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, January 19, 2020 - 6:38:28 PM

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Nelly Elmallakh. Gender, migration and the Arab Spring : evidence from Egypt. Economics and Finance. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA01E027⟩. ⟨tel-01794213v2⟩

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