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Caractérisation physico-chimique et évaluation toxicologique de fumées particulaires produites lors de tirs de petit calibre et de fumigènes : étude comparative

Abstract : Air pollution, and particulary anthropogenic particulate matter, is one of the most important risk factors involved in the high rate of morbidity and mortality related to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In pyrotechnic field, be it professional, civil or military activities, smokes constitue an important particle producer playing a major role in particulate matter emmergence and thereby exposing users to the various emitted aerosols.The main purpose of this exploratory study was to provide knowledge on the physicochemical characteristics of particles emitted during pyrotechnic activities, more specifically particles from gunfire and smokes, and to assess their pulmonary toxicity in vitro.On the first hand, the physicochemical characterization demonstrates that firing particles had a rather coarse granulometry (3 to 7.5 μm) and were mainly composed of metallic elemets, despite smoke particles belong to the category of fine particles (< 0,95 μm) and are predominantly composed of different organic molecules according to the smoke type.On the other hand, in order to assess the pulmonary toxicity of particles, we exposed human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in vitro to particles coming from either gunfire and to two of the four different smokes (smoke 1 and 4). The results of this study showed that some of these particles (gunfire and smoke 1 particles) induced a mutagenic effects from organic extracts, as well as cytotoxicity. Moreover, particles of smoke 1 were also able to give rise to an oxidative stress (increased HO-1 mRNA expression) and to initiate an important inflammatory response characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation (increase in IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression).The results of this comparative study demonstrated that particles from gunfire and smoke have different particle sizes and chemical composition. These physicochemical characteristics are responsible for different mutagenic and cytotoxic effects as well as alterations of the intrinsic oxidizing and inflammatory properties. This study also made it possible to understand the different methods of toxicological evaluation of smoke particles.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 17, 2018 - 10:59:05 AM
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Malik Mekki. Caractérisation physico-chimique et évaluation toxicologique de fumées particulaires produites lors de tirs de petit calibre et de fumigènes : étude comparative. Sciences agricoles. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMR140⟩. ⟨tel-01794023⟩

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