Caractérisation de sources de pollution troposphérique en régions méditerranéenne et ouest-africaine par mesures in situ en avion et modélisation.

Abstract : The study of tropospheric pollution includes the study of trace gases coming from various anthropogenicsources that can impact scales ranging from local to global. To characterise this pollution, it is necessary tobe able to measure with precision pollutant concentrations. Within the frame of European projects, threeairborne campaigns in the Mediterranean Basin, in West Africa and in Malaysia were conducted to measuredifferent types of pollutants thanks to, among others, an infrared laser spectrometer, SPIRIT, able to rapidlymeasure on-line small variations in NO2 and CO. The data sets of these trace gases (and others) have beencombined with a Lagrangian model of particle dispersion, FLEXPART, to fingerprint different sources of localand regional air pollution. Thus, this thesis presents the measurements and the modelling work undertakenin order to define the sources of pollution of each region. It has been shown that the Mediterranean Basinwas impacted, in the mid to upper troposphere during summer, by biomass burning emissions coming fromSiberia and the Northern American continent. West African and Malaysian regions are also impacted bybiomass burning emissions transported from central Africa in the first case, and from local fires in thesecond. In addition, those regions are influenced by emissions coming from oil exploitation and maritimetraffic. FLEXPART was used in order to identify the origin of the pollution peaks measured during thecampaigns. It has been shown that atmospheric conditions, which define the injection height of the oilplatform plume, and also the emission flux are key parameters in the characterisation of the measurementsby the model.
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Vanessa Brocchi. Caractérisation de sources de pollution troposphérique en régions méditerranéenne et ouest-africaine par mesures in situ en avion et modélisation.. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ORLE2021⟩. ⟨tel-01793616⟩

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