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Descripteurs d'images pour les systèmes de vision routiers en situations atmosphériques dégradées et caractérisation des hydrométéores

Abstract : Computer vision systems are increasingly being used on roads. They can be installed along infrastructure for traffic monitoring purposes. When mounted in vehicles, they perform driver assistance functions. In both cases, computer vision systems enhance road safety and streamline travel.A literature review starts by retracing the introduction and rollout of computer vision algorithms in road environments, and goes on to demonstrate the importance of image descriptors in the processing chains implemented in such algorithms. It continues with a review of image descriptors from a novel approach, considering them in parallel with final applications, which opens up numerous analytical angles. Finally the literature review makes it possible to assess which descriptors are the most representative in road environments.Several databases containing images and associated meteorological data (e.g. rain, fog) are then presented. These databases are completely original because image acquisition and weather condition measurement are at the same location and the same time. Moreover, calibrated meteorological sensors are used. Each database contains different scenes (e.g. black and white target, pedestrian) and different kind of weather (i.e. rain, fog, daytime, night-time). Databases contain digitally simulated, artificial and natural weather conditions.Seven of the most representative image descriptors in road context are then selected and their robustness in rainy conditions is evaluated. Image descriptors based on pixel intensity and those that use vertical edges are sensitive to rainy conditions. Conversely, the Harris feature and features that combine different edge orientations remain robust for rainfall rates ranging in 0 – 30 mm/h. The robustness of image features in rainy conditions decreases as the rainfall rate increases. Finally, the image descriptors most sensitive to rain have potential for use in a camera-based rain classification application.The image descriptor behaviour in adverse weather conditions is not necessarily related to the associated final function one. Thus, two pedestrian detectors were assessed in degraded weather conditions (rain, fog, daytime, night-time). Night-time and fog are the conditions that have the greatest impact on pedestrian detection. The methodology developed and associated database could be reused to assess others final functions (e.g. vehicle detection, traffic sign detection).In road environments, real-time knowledge of local weather conditions is an essential prerequisite for addressing the twin challenges of enhancing road safety and streamlining travel. Currently, the only mean of quantifying weather conditions along a road network requires the installation of meteorological stations. Such stations are costly and must be maintained; however, large numbers of cameras are already installed on the roadside. A new method that uses road traffic cameras to detect weather conditions has therefore been proposed. This method uses a combination of a neural network and image descriptors applied to image patches. It addresses a clearly defined set of constraints relating to the ability to operate in real-time and to classify the full spectrum of meteorological conditions and grades them according to their intensity. The method differentiates between normal daytime, rain, fog and normal night-time weather conditions. After several optimisation steps, the proposed method obtains better results than the ones reported in the literature for comparable algorithms.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 16, 2018 - 4:01:10 PM
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Pierre Duthon. Descripteurs d'images pour les systèmes de vision routiers en situations atmosphériques dégradées et caractérisation des hydrométéores. Automatique / Robotique. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC065⟩. ⟨tel-01793497⟩

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