D. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, D. Von-deim-branger, W. Cavenee et al., The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.45, issue.6, pp.803-820, 2016.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2611

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01479018

R. Verhaak, K. Hoadley, E. Purdom, V. Wang, . Md et al., Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1, Cancer Cell, vol.17, issue.1, pp.98-110
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.12.020

D. Parsons, S. Jones, X. Zhang, J. Lin, P. Lea et al., Bi References [1] Andrea Chassot Radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.399-407, 2011.

N. David, A. Louis, G. Perry, A. Reifenberger, D. Von-deimling et al., The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.131, issue.6, pp.803-820, 2016.

A. L. Bredlau, N. David, and . Korones, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, pp.235-259, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-800249-0.00006-8

E. Sophie, A. Veldhuijzen-van-zanten, . Lane, W. Martijn, J. Heymans et al., External validation of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma survival prediction model: a collaborative report from the International DIPG Registry and the SIOPE DIPG Registry, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.7, issue.2, pp.241-11060, 2017.

M. De-wit, H. G. De-bruin, P. Eijkenboom, M. Smitt, . Van-den et al., Immediate post-radiotherapy changes in malignant glioma can mimic tumor progression, Neurology, vol.63, issue.3, pp.535-537, 2004.
DOI : 10.1212/01.WNL.0000133398.11870.9A

T. Charles-ryken, N. Aygun, J. Morris, M. Schweizer, R. Nair et al., The role of imaging in the management of progressive glioblastoma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.24, issue.3, pp.435-460, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clon.2011.06.004

M. Benjamin, C. Ellingson, . Chung, B. Whitney, . Pope et al., Pseudoprogression, radionecrosis , inflammation or true tumor progression? challenges associated with glioblastoma response assessment in an evolving therapeutic landscape, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.77, p.362, 2017.

B. Geoerger, W. Mark, S. Kieran, D. Grupp, J. Perek et al., Phase II trial of temsirolimus in children with high-grade glioma, neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, European Journal of Cancer, vol.48, issue.2, pp.253-262, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejca.2011.09.021

Y. Patrick, . Wen, R. David, . Macdonald, A. David et al., Updated Response Assessment Criteria for High-Grade Gliomas: Response Assessment in Neuro- Oncology Working Group, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.28, issue.11, pp.1963-1972, 2010.

V. Dangouloff-ros, C. Deroulers, F. Foissac, M. Badoual, E. Shotar et al., Arterial Spin Labeling to Predict Brain Tumor Grading in Children: Correlations between Histopathologic Vascular Density and Perfusion MR Imaging, Radiology, vol.281, issue.2, pp.553-566, 2016.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2016152228

P. Lehmann, . Monet, . De-marco, . Saliou, S. Perrin et al., A Comparative Study of Perfusion Measurement in Brain Tumours at 3 Tesla MR: Arterial Spin Labeling versus Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced MRI, European Neurology, vol.64, issue.1, pp.21-26, 2010.
DOI : 10.1159/000311520

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01469470

T. Boutelier, K. Kudo, F. Pautot, and M. Sasaki, Bayesian Hemodynamic Parameter Estimation by Bolus Tracking Perfusion Weighted Imaging, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.31, issue.7, pp.1381-1395, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/TMI.2012.2189890

J. Robert, . Harris, F. Timothy, . Cloughesy, J. Anthony et al., MRI perfusion measurements calculated using advanced deconvolution techniques predict survival in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.122, issue.3, pp.497-505, 2015.

C. Thomas, C. J. Kwee, C. Galb-n, L. Tsien, . Junck et al., Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients and distributed diffusion coefficients in high-grade gliomas, Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, vol.31, issue.3, pp.531-537, 2010.

E. Katherine, . Warren, Y. Tina, G. Poussaint, D. Vezina et al., Challenges with defining response to antitumor agents in pediatric neuro-oncology: a report from the response assessment in pediatric neuro-oncology (RAPNO) working group, Pediatric blood & cancer, vol.60, issue.9, pp.1397-1401, 2013.

R. Jain, Normalization of Tumor Vasculature: An Emerging Concept in Antiangiogenic Therapy, Science, vol.307, issue.5706, pp.58-62, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1104819

P. Tofilon and J. Fike, The radioresponse of the central nervous system: a dynamic process Radiation research, pp.357-370, 2000.

J. Ho-kim, A. Kenneth, . Jenrow, L. Stephen, and . Brown, Mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity and implications for future clinical trials, Radiation Oncology Journal, vol.32, issue.3

J. Sedlacik, . Winchell, R. Kocak, . Loeffler, C. Broniscer et al., MR Imaging Assessment of Tumor Perfusion and 3D Segmented Volume at Baseline, during Treatment, and at Tumor Progression in Children with Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.56, issue.7, pp.1450-1455, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.78

T. Poussaint, . Kocak, R. Vajapeyam, . Packer, . Robertson et al., MRI as a central component of clinical trials analysis in brainstem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC), Neuro-Oncology, vol.107, issue.1, pp.417-427, 2011.
DOI : 10.3171/JNS-07/07/0001

H. Chen, . Panigrahy, J. Dhall, M. Finlay, and . Nelson, Apparent Diffusion and Fractional Anisotropy of Diffuse Intrinsic Brain Stem Gliomas, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.10, pp.311879-1885, 2010.
DOI : 10.1179/174313209X382520

P. Carmeliet, K. Rakesh, and . Jain, Principles and mechanisms of vessel normalization for cancer and other angiogenic diseases, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol.7, issue.6, pp.417-427, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nmeth.1475

A. Albright, R. Packer, R. Zimmerman, L. Rorke, J. Boyett et al., Magnetic Resonance Scans Should Replace Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Diffuse Brain Stem Gliomas, Deuxième article References, pp.1026-1030, 1993.

D. Ameisen, C. Deroulers, V. Perrier, J. Yunès, F. Bouhidel et al., Stack or trash? Quality assessment of virtual slides, Diagnostic pathology, vol.8, pp.23-23, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00867670

A. Barkovich, J. Krischer, L. Kun, R. Packer, R. Zimmerman et al., Brain Stem Gliomas: A Classification System Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Pediatric Neurosurgery, vol.16, issue.2, pp.73-83, 1990.
DOI : 10.1159/000120511

S. Bender, Y. Tang, A. Lindroth, V. Hovestadt, D. Jones et al., Reduced H3K27me3 and DNA Hypomethylation Are Major Drivers of Gene Expression in K27M Mutant Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas, Cancer Cell, vol.24, issue.5, pp.660-672, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2013.10.006

T. Boutelier, K. Kudo, F. Pautot, and M. Sasaki, Bayesian Hemodynamic Parameter Estimation by Bolus Tracking Perfusion Weighted Imaging, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.31, issue.7, pp.1381-1395, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/TMI.2012.2189890

P. Buczkowicz, C. Hoeman, P. Rakopoulos, S. Pajovic, L. Letourneau et al., Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations, Nature Genetics, vol.33, issue.5, pp.451-456, 2014.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.320.7247.1468

R. Calmon, S. Puget, P. Varlet, K. Beccaria, T. Blauwblomme et al., Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Treatment-Induced Changes to Diffuse Infiltrating Pontine Gliomas in Children and Correlation to Patient Progression-Free Survival, International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, vol.99, issue.2, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.04.007

D. Castel, J. Grill, and M. Debily, Histone H3 genotyping refines clinico-radiological diagnostic and prognostic criteria in DIPG, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.46, issue.5, pp.795-796, 2016.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2938

D. Castel, C. Philippe, R. Calmon, L. Dret, L. et al., Histone H3F3A and HIST1H3B K27M mutations define two subgroups of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas with different prognosis and phenotypes, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.6, issue.6, pp.815-827, 2015.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0025451

H. Chen, A. Panigrahy, G. Dhall, J. Finlay, M. Nelson et al., Apparent Diffusion and Fractional Anisotropy of Diffuse Intrinsic Brain Stem Gliomas, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.10, pp.1879-1885, 2010.
DOI : 10.1179/174313209X382520

K. Cohen, N. Jabado, and J. Grill, Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas -current management and new biologic insights . Is there a glimmer of hope? Neuro-Oncology doi:10.1093/ neuonc/nox021. URL https, 2017.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/nox021

D. Crottes, R. Rapetti-mauss, F. Alcaraz-perez, M. Tichet, G. Gariano et al., SIGMAR1 Regulates Membrane Electrical Activity in Response to Extracellular Matrix Stimulation to Drive Cancer Cell Invasiveness, Cancer Research, vol.76, issue.3, pp.607-618, 2016.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1465

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01255163

V. Troisième-article-dangouloff-ros, C. Deroulers, F. Foissac, M. Badoual, E. Shotar et al., Arterial Spin Labeling to Predict Brain Tumor Grading in Children: Correlations between Histopathologic Vascular Density and Perfusion MR Imaging, Radiology, vol.13, issue.2812, pp.553-566, 2016.

C. Deroulers, D. Ameisen, M. Badoual, C. Gerin, A. Granier et al., Analyzing huge pathology images with open source software, Diagnostic Pathology, vol.9, issue.5, pp.92-102, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nmeth.2089

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00842931

C. Deroulers, V. Dangouloff-ros, M. Badoual, P. Varlet, and N. Boddaert, Automatic quantification of the microvascular density on whole slide images, applied to paediatric brain tumours, Diagnostic pathology, vol.2, issue.1, 2016.

F. Epstein and J. Farmer, Brain-stem glioma growth patterns, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.1, issue.7, pp.408-412, 1993.
DOI : 10.1097/00006123-198703000-00014

R. Farnsworth, M. Lackmann, M. Achen, and S. Stacker, Vascular remodeling in cancer, Oncogene, vol.15, issue.27, pp.3496-3505, 2013.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1868

A. Fontebasso, S. Papillon-cavanagh, J. Schwartzentruber, H. Nikbakht, N. Gerges et al., Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma, Nature Genetics, vol.119, issue.5, pp.462-466, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07179

B. Geoerger, D. Hargrave, F. Thomas, A. Ndiaye, D. Frappaz et al., Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer pediatric phase I study of erlotinib in brainstem glioma and relapsing/refractory brain tumors, Neuro-Oncology, vol.28, issue.6A, pp.109-118, 2010.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-3210

D. Hanahan and R. Weinberg, Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation, Cell, vol.144, issue.5, pp.646-674, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013

R. Harris, T. Cloughesy, A. Hardy, L. Liau, W. Pope et al., MRI perfusion measurements calculated using advanced deconvolution techniques predict survival in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.14, issue.Suppl 5, pp.497-505, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/nbm.682

H. Hoffman, L. Becker, and M. Craven, A Clinically and Pathologically Distinct Group of, Benign Brain Stem Gliomas. Neurosurgery, vol.7, issue.3, pp.243-248, 1980.

R. Jain, Normalization of Tumor Vasculature: An Emerging Concept in Antiangiogenic Therapy, Science, vol.307, issue.5706, pp.58-62, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1104819

J. Jehle, P. Schweizer, H. Katus, and T. D. , Novel roles for hERG K+ channels in cell proliferation and apoptosis, Cell Death & Disease, vol.84, issue.8, 2011.
DOI : 10.1161/01.RES.84.9.989

D. Lapin, M. Tsoli, D. Ziegler, P. Lehmann, P. Monet et al., Genomic Insights into Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma A Comparative Study of Perfusion Measurement in Brain Tumours at 3 Tesla MR: Arterial Spin Labeling versus Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Frontiers in oncology European neurology, vol.7, issue.641, pp.21-26, 2010.

P. Lewis, M. Müller, M. Koletsky, F. Cordero, S. Lin et al., Inhibition of PRC2 Activity by a Gain-of-Function H3 Mutation Found in Pediatric Glioblastoma, Science, vol.19, issue.12, pp.857-861, 2013.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1318405

D. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. Von-deimling, D. Figarella-branger et al., The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.45, issue.6, pp.803-820, 2016.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2611

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01479018

K. Martinez and J. Cupitt, VIPS - a highly tuned image processing software architecture, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005, 2005.
DOI : 10.1109/ICIP.2005.1530120

URL : https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/262371/1/martinezcupitt13.pdf

S. Nishio, I. Takeshita, K. Fujii, and M. Fukui, Brain stem glioma: The role of a biopsy, British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.23, issue.3, pp.265-273, 1991.
DOI : 10.2176/nmc.23.566

A. Plessier, L. Dret, P. Varlet, K. Beccaria, J. Lacombe et al., New <i>in vivo</i> avatars of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) from stereotactic biopsies performed at diagnosis, Oncotarget, vol.8, issue.32, 2017.
DOI : 10.18632/oncotarget.15002

T. Poussaint, M. Kocak, S. Vajapeyam, R. Packer, R. Robertson et al., MRI as a central component of clinical trials analysis in brainstem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC), Neuro-Oncology, vol.107, issue.1, pp.417-427, 2011.
DOI : 10.3171/JNS-07/07/0001

S. Puget, K. Beccaria, T. Blauwblomme, T. Roujeau, S. James et al., Biopsy in a series of 130 pediatric diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas, Child's Nervous System, vol.105, issue.10, pp.1773-1780, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-011-0704-4

J. Scallan, V. Huxley, and R. Korthuis, Capillary Fluid Exchange: Regulation, Functions, and Pathology Colloquium Series on Integrated Systems Physiology: From Molecule to Function, 2010.

J. Sedlacik, A. Winchell, M. Kocak, R. Loeffler, A. Broniscer et al., MR Imaging Assessment of Tumor Perfusion and 3D Segmented Volume at Baseline, during Treatment, and at Tumor Progression in Children with Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.56, issue.7, pp.1450-1455, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.78

I. Staudacher, J. Jehle, K. Staudacher, H. Pledl, D. Lemke et al., Herg K+ Channel-Dependent Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Glioblastoma Cells, PLoS ONE, vol.52, issue.2, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0088164.g009

A. Stroink, H. Hoffman, E. Hendrick, and R. Humphreys, Diagnosis and management of pediatric brain-stem gliomas, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.5, issue.6, pp.745-750, 1986.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0142(19800601)45:11<2787::AID-CNCR2820451113>3.0.CO;2-V

K. Taylor, A. Mackay, T. Nn, Y. Butterfield, O. Morozova et al., Recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Nature Genetics, vol.46, issue.5, pp.457-461, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nchembio.2007.54

K. Taylor, M. Vinci, A. Bullock, and C. Jones, Mutations in DIPG: Lessons Learned from FOP, Cancer Research, vol.74, issue.17, pp.4565-4570, 2014.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1298

G. Wu, A. Broniscer, T. Mceachron, C. Lu, B. Paugh et al., Somatic histone H3 alterations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and non-brainstem glioblastomas, Nature Genetics, vol.44, issue.3, pp.251-253444, 2012.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1164382

P. Zinn, B. Mahajan, B. Majadan, P. Sathyan, S. Singh et al., Radiogenomic mapping of edema/cellular invasion MRIphenotypes in glioblastoma multiforme, PloS one, vol.6, issue.10, 2011.

B. K. Troisième-article-synthèse, M. Albert, K. Forsting, H. Sartor, S. Adams et al., Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Resection of Malignant Glioma, Neurosurgery, vol.34, issue.11, pp.45-61, 1994.

A. L. Albright, R. J. Packer, R. Zimmerman, L. B. Rorke, J. Boyett et al., Magnetic Resonance Scans Should Replace Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Diffuse Brain Stem Gliomas, Neurosurgery, vol.33, issue.6, pp.1026-1030, 1993.

H. J. Aronen, I. E. Gazit, D. N. Louis, B. R. Buchbinder, F. S. Pardo et al., Cerebral blood volume maps of gliomas: comparison with tumor grade and histologic findings., Radiology, vol.191, issue.1, pp.41-51, 1994.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.191.1.8134596

Y. Bai, Y. Lin, J. Tian, D. Shi, J. Cheng et al., Grading of Gliomas by Using Monoexponential, Biexponential, and Stretched Exponential Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and Diffusion Kurtosis MR Imaging, Radiology, vol.278, issue.2, pp.496-504, 2016.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2015142173

A. J. Barkovich, J. Krischer, L. E. Kun, R. Packer, R. A. Zimmerman et al., Brain Stem Gliomas: A Classification System Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Pediatric Neurosurgery, vol.16, issue.2, pp.73-83, 1990.
DOI : 10.1159/000120511

T. T. Batchelor, A. G. Sorensen, E. Di-tomaso, W. Zhang, D. G. Duda et al., AZD2171, a Pan-VEGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Normalizes Tumor Vasculature and Alleviates Edema in Glioblastoma Patients, Cancer Cell, vol.11, issue.1, pp.83-95, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.11.021

K. M. Bennett, K. M. Schmainda, R. Bennett-tong, D. B. Rowe, H. Lu et al., Characterization of continuously distributed cortical water diffusion rates with a stretched-exponential model, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol.12, issue.4, pp.727-734, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199902)12:1<45::AID-NBM545>3.0.CO;2-6

. Wilson, Pediatric brain stem tumors : radiographic, pathological, and clinical correlations, Neurosurgery, vol.12, issue.3, pp.298-302, 1983.

S. Bette, J. Gempt, T. Huber, T. Boeckh-behrens, F. Ringel et al., Patterns and Time Dependence of Unspecific Enhancement in Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Glioblastoma Resection, World Neurosurgery, vol.90, pp.440-447, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.03.031

L. T. Bilaniuk, R. A. Zimmerman, P. Littman, E. Gallo, L. B. Rorke et al., Computed tomography of brain stem gliomas in children., Radiology, vol.134, issue.1, pp.89-95, 1980.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.134.1.7350640

S. Bluml, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, MR Spectroscopy of Pediatric Brain Disorders, pp.11-23978

L. A. Brandão and M. Castillo, Adult Brain Tumors : Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America, pp.781-809, 2016.

S. Braunstein, D. Raleigh, R. Bindra, S. Mueller, and D. Haas-kogan, Pediatric high-grade glioma: current molecular landscape and therapeutic approaches, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.111, issue.1, p.65, 2017.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.1102

A. L. Bredlau and D. N. Korones, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, pp.235-259, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-800249-0.00006-8

D. L. Burkhart and J. Sage, Cellular mechanisms of tumour suppression by the retinoblastoma gene, Nature Reviews Cancer, vol.6, issue.9, pp.671-682, 2008.
DOI : 10.3109/10428199709039011

M. Cartmill and J. Punt, Diffuse brain stem glioma. A review of stereotactic biopsies. Child's nervous system, ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, vol.15, issue.5, pp.235-242, 1999.

H. Histone and H. K27m, define two subgroups of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas with different prognosis and phenotypes, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.130, issue.6, pp.815-827, 2015.

D. Castel, J. Grill, and M. Debily, Histone H3 genotyping refines clinico-radiological diagnostic and prognostic criteria in DIPG, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.46, issue.5
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2938

R. Ceschin, B. F. Kurland, S. R. Abberbock, B. M. Ellingson, H. Okada et al., Parametric Response Mapping of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient as an Imaging Biomarker to Distinguish Pseudoprogression from True Tumor Progression in Peptide-Based Vaccine Therapy for Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.11, pp.2170-2176, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/not197

S. Cha, Brain Cancer : Evidence-Based Neuroimaging Evidence-Based Neuroimaging Diagnosis and Treatment , chapter 25

M. C. Chamberlain, MRI in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab and chemotherapy, Neurology, vol.67, issue.11, pp.2089-2089, 2006.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000250628.10420.d8

O. Chamdine and A. Gajjar, Molecular characteristics of pediatric high-grade gliomas, CNS Oncology, vol.93, issue.1, pp.433-443, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/bpa.12171

H. J. Chen, A. Panigrahy, G. Dhall, J. L. Finlay, M. D. Nelson et al., Apparent Diffusion and Fractional Anisotropy of Diffuse Intrinsic Brain Stem Gliomas, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.10, pp.311879-1885, 2010.
DOI : 10.1179/174313209X382520

S. Chen, P. Hou, L. Lou, X. Jin, T. Wang et al., The correlation between MR diffusion-weighted imaging and pathological grades on glioma. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, pp.1904-1909, 2014.

T. P. Chu, A. Shah, D. Walker, and M. P. Coleman, Where are the opportunities for an earlier diagnosis of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults?, European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, vol.21, issue.2, pp.388-395, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.10.010

K. J. Cohen, N. Jabado, and J. Grill, Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas -current management and new biologic insights. Is there a glimmer of hope ? Neuro-Oncology, 2017.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/nox021

A. E. Conway, W. E. Reddick, Y. Li, Y. Yuan, J. O. Glass et al., ???Occult??? post-contrast signal enhancement in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is the MRI marker of angiogenesis?, Neuroradiology, vol.254, issue.2, pp.405-412, 2014.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.09090663

W. A. Copen, M. H. Lev, and O. Rapalino, Brain perfusion, pp.117-135, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-444-53485-9.00006-4

V. Dangouloff-ros, C. Deroulers, F. Foissac, M. Badoual, E. Shotar et al., Arterial Spin Labeling to Predict Brain Tumor Grading in Children : Correlations between Histopathologic Vascular Density and Perfusion MR Imaging Epidemiology for primary brain tumors : a nationwide population-based study, Radiology Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.281, issue.1313, pp.553-566, 2016.

C. Daumas-duport, F. Beuvon, P. Varlet, and C. Fallet-bianco, [Gliomas : WHO and Sainte-Anne Hospital classifications], Annales de pathologie, vol.20, issue.5, pp.413-428, 2000.

M. C. De-wit, H. G. De-bruin, W. Eijkenboom, P. A. Smitt, M. J. Van-den et al., Immediate post-radiotherapy changes in malignant glioma can mimic tumor progression, Neurology, vol.63, issue.3, pp.535-537, 2004.
DOI : 10.1212/01.WNL.0000133398.11870.9A

E. Desandes, S. Guissou, P. Chastagner, and B. Lacour, Incidence and survival of children with central nervous system primitive tumors in the French National Registry of Childhood Solid Tumors, Neuro-Oncology, vol.13, issue.6, pp.975-983, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/nor025

A. K. Diaz and S. J. Baker, The Genetic Signatures of Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: No Longer a One-Act Play, Seminars in Radiation Oncology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.240-247, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.semradonc.2014.06.003

R. R. Edelman, H. P. Mattle, D. J. Atkinson, T. Hill, J. P. Finn et al., Cerebral blood flow: assessment with dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted MR imaging at 1.5 T., Radiology, vol.176, issue.1, pp.211-220, 1990.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.176.1.2353094

O. Eidel, J. Neumann, S. Burth, P. J. Kieslich, C. Jungk et al., Automatic Analysis of Cellularity in Glioblastoma and Correlation with ADC Using Trajectory Analysis and Automatic Nuclei Counting, PLOS ONE, vol.14, issue.7
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0160250.s001

G. Ekinci, H. N. Akp-nar, F. Baltac-o-lu, C. Erzen, T. R. Elmac et al., Early-postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in glial tumors: prediction of tumor regrowth and recurrence, European Journal of Radiology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.99-107, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0720-048X(02)00027-X

B. M. Ellingson, M. G. Malkin, S. D. Rand, J. M. Connelly, C. Quinsey et al., Validation of functional diffusion maps (fDMs) as a biomarker for human glioma cellularity, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.11, issue.3, pp.538-548, 2010.
DOI : 10.1593/neo.81328

B. M. Ellingson, M. Bendszus, J. Boxerman, D. Barboriak, B. J. Erickson et al., Consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol in clinical trials, and Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development Coalition Imaging Standardization Steering Committee, pp.1188-1198

B. M. Ellingson, C. Chung, W. B. Pope, J. L. Boxerman, and T. J. Kaufmann, Pseudoprogression, radionecrosis, inflammation or true tumor progression? challenges associated with glioblastoma response assessment in an evolving therapeutic landscape, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.30, issue.6, p.362, 2017.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2011.40.9565

J. Fangusaro, Pediatric High Grade Glioma: a Review and Update on Tumor Clinical Characteristics and Biology, Frontiers in Oncology, vol.2, 2012.
DOI : 10.3389/fonc.2012.00105

R. H. Farnsworth, M. Lackmann, M. G. Achen, and S. A. Stacker, Vascular remodeling in cancer, Oncogene, vol.15, issue.27, pp.3496-3505, 2013.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1868

G. M. Fatterpekar, D. Galheigo, A. Narayana, G. Johnson, and E. Knopp, Treatment-Related Change Versus Tumor Recurrence in High-Grade Gliomas: A Diagnostic Conundrum???Use of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) Perfusion MRI, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.198, issue.1, pp.19-26, 2012.
DOI : 10.2214/AJR.11.7417

S. Ferguson and M. S. Lesniak, Percival Bailey and the classification of brain tumors, Neurosurgical Focus, vol.8, issue.4, pp.1-6, 2005.
DOI : 10.1001/archneur.59.4.642

A. Filler, The History, Development and Impact of Computed Imaging in Neurological Diagnosis and Neurosurgery: CT, MRI, and DTI, Nature Precedings, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/npre.2009.3267

P. T. Goldthwaite, T. Goldthwaite, P. C. Tihan, P. C. Burger, and . Burger, A clinicopathologic reappraisal of brain stem tumor classification. Identification of pilocystic astrocytoma and fibrillary astrocytoma as distinct entities, Cancer, vol.8989, issue.7, pp.1569-1576, 2000.

E. S. Flamm, THE NEUROLOGY OF JEAN CRUVEILHIER, Medical History, vol.17, issue.04, pp.343-355, 1973.
DOI : 10.1017/S0025727300018950

M. Gado, I. Huete, and M. Mikhael, Computerized tomography of infratentorial tumors, Seminars in Roentgenology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.109-120, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0037-198X(77)90013-X

A. Gajjar, S. M. Pfister, M. D. Taylor, and R. J. Gilbertson, Molecular Insights into Pediatric Brain Tumors Have the Potential to Transform Therapy, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.20, issue.22, pp.5630-5640, 2014.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0833

T. Z. Shaw, C. Filardi, J. R. Hoeppner, J. M. Geyer, J. G. Olson et al., DTI fiber tracking to differentiate demyelinating diseases from diffuse brain stem glioma, NeuroImage, vol.52, issue.1, pp.217-223, 2010.

H. W. Goo and Y. Ra, Advanced MRI for Pediatric Brain Tumors with Emphasis on Clinical Benefits, Korean Journal of Radiology, vol.18, issue.1
DOI : 10.3348/kjr.2017.18.1.194

C. S. Grasso, Y. Tang, N. Truffaux, N. E. Berlow, L. Liu et al., Functionally defined therapeutic targets in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Nature Medicine, vol.21, issue.6, pp.555-559, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/nmeth.1226

C. S. Grasso, Y. Tang, N. Truffaux, N. E. Berlow, L. Liu et al., Erratum: Functionally defined therapeutic targets in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Nature Medicine, vol.21, issue.7, pp.827-827, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.3855

M. Günther, Perfusion Imaging, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.25, issue.2, pp.269-279, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s10334-012-0308-9

A. C. Guo, T. J. Cummings, R. C. Dash, and J. M. Provenzale, Lymphomas and High-Grade Astrocytomas: Comparison of Water Diffusibility and Histologic Characteristics, Radiology, vol.224, issue.1, pp.177-183, 2002.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2241010637

J. S. Han, C. T. Bonstelle, B. Kaufman, J. E. Benson, R. J. Alfidi et al., Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the brainstem., Radiology, vol.150, issue.3, pp.705-712, 1984.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.150.3.6695071

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation, Cell, vol.144, issue.5, pp.646-674, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013

D. Hargrave, N. Chuang, and E. Bouffet, Conventional MRI cannot predict survival in childhood diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.25, issue.9, pp.313-319, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-007-9473-5

P. A. Hein, C. J. Eskey, J. F. Dunn, and E. B. Hug, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Follow-up of Treated High-Grade Gliomas : Tumor Recurrence versus Radiation Injury, Am. J. Neuroradiol, vol.25, issue.2, pp.201-209, 2004.

M. M. Henegar, C. J. Moran, and D. L. Silbergeld, Early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging following nonneoplastic cortical resection, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.10, issue.2, pp.174-179, 1996.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1973.38.4.0448

S. J. Hipp, E. Steffen-smith, J. H. Hammoud, R. Shih, K. E. Bent et al., Predicting outcome of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas using multiparametric imaging, Neuro-Oncology, vol.34, issue.10
DOI : 10.2307/2281868

H. J. Hoffman, L. Becker, and M. A. Craven, A Clinically and Pathologically Distinct Group of Benign Brain Stem Gliomas, Neurosurgery, vol.7, issue.3, pp.243-248, 1980.
DOI : 10.1227/00006123-198009000-00007

M. Hollstein and P. Hainaut, Massively regulated genes : the example of TP53. The Journal of pathology, 2009.

L. S. Hu, J. M. Eschbacher, J. E. Heiserman, A. C. Dueck, W. R. Shapiro et al., Reevaluating the imaging definition of tumor progression: perfusion MRI quantifies recurrent glioblastoma tumor fraction, pseudoprogression, and radiation necrosis to predict survival, Neuro-Oncology, vol.17, issue.14, pp.919-930, 2012.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2098

R. Y. Huang and P. Y. Wen, Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria and Clinical Endpoints Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America, pp.705-718, 2016.

M. G. Hueftle, J. S. Han, B. Kaufman, and J. E. Benson, MR Imaging of Brain Stem Gliomas, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.9, issue.2, pp.263-267, 1985.
DOI : 10.1097/00004728-198503000-00006

A. Huttner, Molecular Neuropathology and the Ontogeny of Malignant Gliomas, Malignant Brain Tumors, pp.15-29978, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccell.2015.04.002

H. Hyare, S. Thust, and J. Rees, Advanced MRI Techniques in the Monitoring of Treatment of Gliomas, Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol.28, issue.3, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clon.2016.04.042

G. Jahng, K. Li, L. Ostergaard, and F. Calamante, Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques, Korean Journal of Radiology, vol.15, issue.5
DOI : 10.3348/kjr.2014.15.5.554

T. Jaspan, P. S. Morgan, M. Warmuth-metz, E. Sanchez-aliaga, D. Warren et al., Response Assessment in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Implementation and Expansion of the RANO Criteria in a Randomized Phase II Trial of Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.31, issue.9, pp.1581-1587, 2016.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.13131305

J. H. Jensen, J. A. Helpern, J. H. Jensen, J. A. Helpern, A. Ramani et al., MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis Diffusional kurtosis imaging : the quantification of non-gaussian water diffusion by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, NMR in biomedicine Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol.23, issue.536, pp.698-7101432, 2005.

C. Jones, M. A. Karajannis, D. T. Jones, M. W. Kieran, M. Monje et al., Pediatric high-grade glioma: biologically and clinically in need of new thinking, Neuro-Oncology, vol.13, issue.(1), p.101, 2016.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0832

S. Kallappagoudar, R. K. Yadav, B. R. Lowe, and J. F. Partridge, Histone H3 mutations -a special role for H3.3 in tumorigenesis ? Chromosoma, pp.177-189, 2015.

R. Kebudi and F. B. Cakir, Management of Diffuse Pontine Gliomas in Children : Recent Developments Pediatric Drugs, pp.351-362, 2013.

M. W. Kieran, Lessons learned from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: how a terrible disease forced us to think better, Neuro-Oncology, vol.31, issue.10, 2017.
DOI : 10.1007/s00381-015-2832-1

M. Kim and H. S. Kim, Emerging Techniques in Brain Tumor Imaging: What Radiologists Need to Know, Korean Journal of Radiology, vol.17, issue.5, pp.598-619, 2016.
DOI : 10.3348/kjr.2016.17.5.598

P. Kleihues, P. C. Burger, and B. W. Scheithauer, The New WHO Classification of Brain Tumours, Brain Pathology, vol.8, issue.3, pp.255-268, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-3347-7_12

]. T. Kondo, Molecular mechanisms involved in gliomagenesis, Brain Tumor Pathology, vol.29, issue.1
DOI : 10.1038/onc.2010.60

K. Langen, N. Galldiks, E. Hattingen, and N. J. Shah, Advances in neuro-oncology imaging, Nature Reviews Neurology, vol.56, issue.5, pp.279-289, 2017.
DOI : 10.2967/jnumed.115.158998

D. H. Lapin, M. Tsoli, and D. S. Ziegler, Genomic Insights into Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, Frontiers in Oncology, vol.10, issue.3, 2017.
DOI : 10.1215/15228517-2007-066

URL : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2017.00057/pdf

Y. Le, S. Lu, T. R. Nelson, and . Mcknight, Longitudinal multivoxel MR spectroscopy study of pediatric diffuse brainstem gliomas treated with radiotherapy, International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, vol.62, issue.1, pp.20-31, 2005.

M. Law, S. Oh, J. S. Babb, E. Wang, M. Inglese et al., Low-Grade Gliomas: Dynamic Susceptibility-weighted Contrast-enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging???Prediction of Patient Clinical Response, Radiology, vol.238, issue.2, pp.658-667, 2006.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2382042180

D. , L. Bihan, E. Breton, D. Lallemand, P. Grenier et al., MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions : application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders, Radiology, vol.161, issue.2, pp.401-407, 1986.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00349714

J. Lee, D. A. Solomon, and T. Tihan, The role of histone modifications and telomere alterations in the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas in adults and children, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.39, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ctrv.2012.06.007

J. E. Leestma, Brain tumors, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.100, issue.1, pp.239-316, 1980.

V. A. Levin, D. C. Crafts, D. M. Norman, P. B. Hoffer, J. Spire et al., Criteria for evaluating patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.121, issue.3, pp.329-335, 1977.
DOI : 10.1148/121.1.85

P. W. Lewis and C. D. Allis, Poisoning the ???histone code??? in pediatric gliomagenesis, Cell Cycle, vol.140, issue.20, pp.3241-3242, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.003

U. Löbel, J. Sedlacik, W. E. Reddick, M. Kocak, Q. Ji et al., Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted and Dynamic Susceptibility-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging Analysis of T2 Hypointense Lesion Components in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.51, issue.2, pp.315-322, 2011.
DOI : 10.3174/ajnr.A0786

U. Löbel, S. Hwang, A. Edwards, Y. Li, X. Li et al., Discrepant longitudinal volumetric and metabolic evolution of diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas during treatment: implications for current response assessment strategies, Neuroradiology, vol.62, issue.10, pp.1027-1034, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.09.027

R. M. Lober, Y. Cho, Y. Tang, P. D. Barnes, M. S. Edwards et al., Diffusion-weighted MRI derived apparent diffusion coefficient identifies prognostically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.32, issue.2, pp.175-182, 2014.
DOI : 10.3174/ajnr.A2277

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. Von-deimling, D. Figarella-branger et al., The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.45, issue.6, pp.803-820, 2016.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2611

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01479018

R. Luypaert, S. Boujraf, S. Sourbron, and M. Osteaux, Diffusion and perfusion MRI: basic physics, European Journal of Radiology, vol.38, issue.1, pp.19-27, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0720-048X(01)00286-8

M. C. Mabray and S. Cha, Advanced MR Imaging Techniques in Daily Practice Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, pp.647-666, 2016.

D. R. Macdonald, T. L. Cascino, S. C. Jr, and J. G. Cairncross, Response criteria for phase II studies of supratentorial malignant glioma., Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.8, issue.7, pp.1277-1280, 1990.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.1990.8.7.1277

C. Majós, M. Cos, S. Castañer, M. Gil, G. Plans et al., Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients, European Radiology, vol.102, issue.4, pp.1048-1055, 2016.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.2005.102.4.0622

L. Laird, J. G. Cope, D. J. Herman, F. Weisenberger, D. Pan et al., Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways, Nature, issue.7216, pp.4551061-1068, 2008.

J. E. Minturn and M. J. Fisher, Gliomas in Children, Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol.8, issue.1, pp.316-327, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.spen.2012.02.012

B. A. Moffat, T. L. Chenevert, T. S. Lawrence, C. R. Meyer, T. D. Johnson et al., Functional diffusion map: A noninvasive MRI biomarker for early stratification of clinical brain tumor response, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.6, issue.3, pp.5524-5529, 2005.
DOI : 10.1215/S1152851703000620

A. Mohammadzadeh, V. Mohammadzadeh, S. Kooraki, H. Sotoudeh, S. Kadivar et al., Pretreatment Evaluation of Glioma, Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol.26, issue.4, pp.567-580, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nic.2016.06.006

P. Mukherjee, J. I. Berman, S. W. Chung, C. P. Hess, and R. G. Henry, Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging and Fiber Tractography: Theoretic Underpinnings, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.9, pp.632-641, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0000597

URL : http://www.ajnr.org/content/ajnr/29/4/632.full.pdf

P. Mukherjee, S. W. Chung, J. I. Berman, C. P. Hess, and R. G. Henry, Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging and Fiber Tractography: Technical Considerations, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.40, issue.5, pp.843-852, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0000597

URL : http://www.ajnr.org/content/ajnr/29/5/843.full.pdf

R. V. Mulkern, H. Gudbjartsson, C. F. Westin, H. P. Zengingonul, W. Gartner et al., Multi-component apparent diffusion coefficients in human brain, 1<51::AID-NBM546>3. 0.CO;2-E/abstract, pp.51-62, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/jmrb.1996.0125

K. M. Mullen and R. Y. Huang, An Update on the Approach to the Imaging of Brain Tumors, Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol.83, issue.7
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.03.026

R. Murakami, T. Hirai, T. Sugahara, H. Fukuoka, R. Toya et al., Grading Astrocytic Tumors by Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Parameters: Superiority of a One- versus Two-Parameter Pilot Method, Radiology, vol.251, issue.3, pp.838-845, 2009.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2513080899

D. S. Nørøxe, H. S. Poulsen, and U. Lassen, Hallmarks of glioblastoma : a systematic review, ESMO Open, vol.1, issue.6, pp.144-154, 2017.

Q. T. Ostrom, H. Gittleman, J. Xu, C. Kromer, Y. Wolinsky et al., CBTRUS Statistical Report : Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States, Neuro-Oncology, vol.18, pp.1-75, 2009.

A. Panigrahy, M. D. Nelson, J. L. Finlay, R. Sposto, M. D. Krieger et al., Metabolism of diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas in children, Neuro-Oncology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.32-4415228517, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(200002)13:1<28::AID-NBM606>3.0.CO;2-L

P. Patel, H. Baradaran, D. Delgado, G. Askin, P. Christos et al., MR perfusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of high-grade gliomas after treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Neuro-Oncology, vol.2, issue.(2), pp.118-127, 2017.
DOI : 10.1117/1.JMI.2.2.026001

R. Paxton and J. Ambrose, The EMI scanner. A brief review of the first 650 patients. The British journal of radiology, pp.530-5650007, 1974.

R. Peris-bonet, C. Martínez-garcía, B. Lacour, S. Petrovich, B. Giner-ripoll et al., Childhood central nervous system tumours ??? incidence and survival in Europe (1978???1997): Report from Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project, European Journal of Cancer, vol.42, issue.13, pp.2064-2080, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.05.009

V. C. Pierre, M. J. Allen, and P. Caravan, Contrast agents for MRI: 30+ years and where are we going?, JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, vol.47, issue.2, pp.127-131, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00775-013-1055-8

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00775-013-1074-5.pdf

A. Plessier, L. L. Dret, P. Varlet, K. Beccaria, J. Lacombe et al., New <i>in vivo</i> avatars of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) from stereotactic biopsies performed at diagnosis, Oncotarget, vol.8, issue.32, 2017.
DOI : 10.18632/oncotarget.15002

W. B. Pope, A. Lai, P. Nghiemphu, P. Mischel, and T. F. Cloughesy, MRI in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab and chemotherapy, Neurology, vol.66, issue.8, pp.1258-1260, 2006.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000208958.29600.87

T. Y. Poussaint, S. Vajapeyam, K. I. Ricci, A. Panigrahy, M. Kocak et al., MRI as a central component of clinical trials analysis in brainstem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC), Neuro-Oncology, vol.107, issue.1, pp.417-427725, 2011.
DOI : 10.3171/JNS-07/07/0001

S. Puget, K. Beccaria, T. Blauwblomme, T. Roujeau, S. James et al., Biopsy in a series of 130 pediatric diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas. Child's nervous system, ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, issue.10, pp.311773-1780, 2015.

I. Radovanovic and A. Guha, Neurogenetics and the molecular biology of human brain tumors, Brain Tumors, p.83
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-443-06967-3.00005-3

G. Reifenberger, H. Wirsching, C. B. Knobbe-thomsen, and M. Weller, Advances in the molecular genetics of gliomas ??? implications for classification and therapy, Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol.134, issue.7, p.70, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-802997-8.00006-2

D. Rizzo, A. Ruggiero, M. Martini, V. Rizzo, P. Maurizi et al., Molecular Biology in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment, BioMed Research International, vol.61, issue.20, pp.20151-20161, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00381-010-1264-1

N. J. Robison and M. W. Kieran, Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: a reassessment, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.13, issue.1, pp.7-15, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/noq141

L. B. Rorke, F. H. Gilles, R. L. Davis, and L. E. Becker, Revision of the world health organization classification of brain tumors for childhood brain tumors, Cancer, vol.10, issue.S7, pp.1869-1886, 1985.
DOI : 10.1001/archneurpsyc.1925.02200140055002

T. Roujeau, G. Machado, M. R. Garnett, C. Miquel, S. Puget et al., Stereotactic biopsy of diffuse pontine lesions in children, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, vol.28, issue.2, pp.1-4, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0142(20001115)89:10<2131::AID-CNCR14>3.0.CO;2-J

S. Ryall, U. Tabori, and C. Hawkins, A comprehensive review of paediatric low-grade diffuse glioma: pathology, molecular genetics and treatment, Brain Tumor Pathology, vol.60, issue.12, pp.51-61, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/ctr.12472

J. Sedlacik, A. Winchell, M. Kocak, R. B. Loeffler, A. Broniscer et al., MR Imaging Assessment of Tumor Perfusion and 3D Segmented Volume at Baseline, during Treatment, and at Tumor Progression in Children with Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.56, issue.7, pp.1450-1455, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.78

A. Howlader, M. Noone, D. Krapcho, K. Miller, C. Bishop et al., Survival and Mortality URL https, SEER. Childhood Cancer by Site Incidence, pp.1-22, 1975.

D. Segal and M. A. Karajannis, Pediatric Brain Tumors : An Update Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, pp.242-250, 2016.

Z. A. Seymour, A. Panigrahy, J. L. Finlay, M. D. Nelson, and S. Blüml, Citrate in Pediatric CNS Tumors?, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.5, pp.1006-1011, 1018.
DOI : 10.1203/00006450-199910000-00019

M. S. Shiroishi, J. L. Boxerman, and W. B. Pope, Physiologic MRI for assessment of response to therapy and prognosis in glioblastoma, Neuro-Oncology, vol.6, issue.(5), pp.467-478, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nic.2014.09.006

P. J. Skene and S. Henikoff, Histone variants in pluripotency and disease . Development (Cambridge, England), pp.2513-2524, 2013.

T. Smets, T. V. Lawson, C. C. Grandin, A. Jankovski, and C. Raftopoulos, Immediate post-operative MRI suggestive of the site and timing of glioblastoma recurrence after gross total resection: a retrospective longitudinal preliminary study, European Radiology, vol.28, issue.3 Suppl 1, pp.1467-1477, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.01.076

D. A. Solomon, M. D. Wood, T. Tihan, A. W. Bollen, N. Gupta et al., Diffuse Midline Gliomas with Histone H3-K27M Mutation: A Series of 47 Cases Assessing the Spectrum of Morphologic Variation and Associated Genetic Alterations, Brain Pathology, vol.46, issue.5, pp.569-580, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2995

D. Sommelet, J. Clavel, and B. Lacour, Épidémiologie des cancers de l'enfant, pp.978-980, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-2-287-78337-1

E. A. Steffen-smith, J. H. Shih, S. J. Hipp, R. Bent, and K. E. Warren, Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts survival in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.23, issue.2, pp.365-373, 2011.
DOI : 10.1080/02688690802491673

A. R. Stroink, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, and R. P. Humphreys, Diagnosis and management of pediatric brain-stem gliomas, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.5, issue.6, pp.745-750, 1986.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0142(19800601)45:11<2787::AID-CNCR2820451113>3.0.CO;2-V

A. R. Stroink, H. J. Hoffman, B. E. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and G. Davidson, Transependymal benign dorsally exophytic brain stem gliomas in childhood, Neurosurgery, vol.20, issue.3, pp.439-444, 1987.
DOI : 10.1097/00006123-198703000-00014

. Zhou, Differentiation of Low-and High-Grade Pediatric Brain Tumors with High b-Value Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and a Fractional Order Calculus Model, Radiology, vol.277, issue.2, pp.489-496, 2015.

P. Svolos, E. Kousi, E. Kapsalaki, K. Theodorou, I. Fezoulidis et al., The role of diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging in the differential diagnosis of cerebral tumors : a review and future perspectives, Cancer Imaging URL, vol.1420, 2014.

K. R. Taylor, M. Vinci, A. N. Bullock, and C. Jones, Mutations in DIPG: Lessons Learned from FOP, Cancer Research, vol.74, issue.17, pp.4565-4570, 2014.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1298

S. B. Thakur, S. Karimi, I. J. Dunkel, J. A. Koutcher, and W. Huang, Longitudinal MR spectroscopic imaging of pediatric diffuse pontine tumors to assess tumor aggression and progression, AJNR American journal of neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.4, pp.806-809, 2006.

J. Tisnado, R. Young, K. K. Peck, S. Haque, R. Turner et al., Conventional and Advanced Imaging of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Echo-planar imaging of intravoxel incoherent motion, Journal of Child Neurology Radiology, vol.177, issue.122, pp.311386-1393407, 1990.

R. L. Virchow, Die krankhaften Geschwülste, volume 1 of Dressig Volesungen gehalted während des Wintersemesters 1862-1863 an der

R. L. Virchow, Die krankhaften Geschwülste, volume 2 of Dressig Volesungen gehalted während des Wintersemesters 1862-1863 an der

B. Vogelstein and K. W. Kinzler, Cancer genes and the pathways they control, Nature Medicine, vol.23, issue.8, pp.789-799, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.onc.1207130

M. W. Wagner, W. R. Bell, J. Kern, T. Bosemani, J. Mhlanga et al., Diffusion tensor imaging suggests extrapontine extension of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, European Journal of Radiology, vol.85, issue.4, pp.700-706, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.02.004

M. Warmuth-metz, Imaging and diagnosis in pediatric brain tumor studies
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-319-42503-0

K. E. Warren, Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma : poised for progress . Frontiers in oncology, 2012.
DOI : 10.3389/fonc.2012.00205

URL : https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2012.00205

P. Y. Wen, D. R. Macdonald, D. A. Reardon, T. F. Cloughesy, A. G. Sorensen et al., Updated Response Assessment Criteria for High-Grade Gliomas: Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.28, issue.11, pp.1963-1972, 2010.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.3541

C. G. Dyer, R. J. Mullighan, E. R. Gilbertson, R. K. Mardis, J. R. Wilson et al., Somatic histone H3 alterations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and non-brainstem glioblastomas, Nature genetics, vol.44, issue.3, pp.251-253, 2012.

F. Yamasaki, K. Kurisu, T. Aoki, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kajiwara et al., Advantages of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging to diagnose pseudo-responses in patients with recurrent glioma after bevacizumab treatment, European Journal of Radiology, vol.81, issue.10, pp.2805-2810, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.10.018

K. W. Yeom, R. M. Lober, M. D. Nelson, A. Panigrahy, and S. , Citrate concentrations increase with hypoperfusion in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.124, issue.3, pp.383-389, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00401-012-0998-0

I. R. Young, M. Burl, G. J. Clarke, A. S. Hall, T. Pasmore et al., Magnetic resonance properties of hydrogen: imaging the posterior fossa, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.137, issue.5, pp.487-1961, 1981.
DOI : 10.2214/ajr.137.5.895

P. M. Zeltzer, H. S. Friedman, D. G. Norris, and A. H. Ragab, Criteria and definitions for response and relapse in children with brain tumors, Cancer, vol.12, issue.S7, pp.1824-1826, 1985.
DOI : 10.1148/119.2.471

Y. Zhu and L. F. Parada, The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological Tumours, Nature Reviews Cancer, vol.2, issue.8, pp.616-626, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nrc866

K. J. Zülch, Principles of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, Neuroradiology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.59-66, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-67028-2_56

K. J. Zülch, Historical development of the classification of brain tumours and the new proposal of the world health organization (WHO) Neurosurgical review, pp.123-127, 1981.

R. Laboratoire-de, Image at Imagine : IHU Imagine UMR 1163, p.1000