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Bank internationalization and regulatory framework : organizational strategies, bank performance, and systemic risk

Abstract : This thesis examines the determinants of foreign banks’ presence and their organizational strategies abroad and tests how such internationalization affects bank performance and systemic risk. The dissertation is comprises of three empirical essays on European banks. The first chapter analyzes whether differences in economic development of the host countries and the maturity of their financial system are relevant to explain how banking regulation affects the choice of the foreign location and the organizational strategy of an exclusive organizational network with only branches or subsidiaries or a mix model with both affiliates’ types. The findings indicate that over the 2011–2013 period, European banks prefer high-income countries with numerous activity restrictions and weaker supervision but less developed countries with less restrictions and stronger supervision. Regarding the choice of foreign organizational form, banks rather operate subsidiaries in high and middle-income countries with stringent entry requirements but prefer branches in developing countries with stringent capital requirements and greater supervisory power. However, banks always tend to avoid locations with stronger capital regulation than at home. Yet when they are present in such countries, they operate branches. The second chapter investigates how foreign organizational and geographic complexity affect the parent bank’s individual risk and profitability. Our results show that being present abroad is beneficial for bank stability as it contributes to lower default risk. Banks present abroad through both subsidiaries and branches appear to be more stable than banks present under one form only. Being present with branches only is the most effective way to reduce risk-taking. Nevertheless, higher geographic dispersion of affiliates around different world regions is associated with higher volatility of earnings and higher profitability. Chapter 3 considers the state and soundness of the banking system and examines whether the presence of banks abroad with subsidiaries affects bank systemic risk differently during calm period (2005–2007), distress times of the global financial crisis and the European Sovereign debt crisis (2008–2011), and years after (2012–2013). We show for European listed banks that operating subsidiaries abroad is associated with lower systemic risk in normal times. However, when the banking system is facing severe shocks, such internationalization produces on systemic risk reversed and negative effects that are long-lived and aggravated in the years after the crises. Our findings suggest that bank internationalization and foreign complexity are important for greater stability in normal times but turn out to increase instability during years of financial turmoil and in the aftermath.
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Annick Pamen Nyola. Bank internationalization and regulatory framework : organizational strategies, bank performance, and systemic risk. Economics and Finance. Université de Limoges, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0001⟩. ⟨tel-01792051⟩

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