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Etude de déterminants de la dysfonction vasculaire pulmonaire au cours du syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigue

Abstract : Study of factors determining the pulmonary vascular dysfunction during acute respiratory distress syndrome.The pathophysiology of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) includes a pulmonary vascular dysfunction, which is attributable to thrombosis, endothelial hyperpermeability, dysregulation of the pulmonary vasomotor tone and remodeling. Positive pressure ventilation is an exacerbating factor. The result is an increase in the pulmonary vascular resistances, which lead to an acute pulmonary hypertension and may cause acute cor pulmonale, both associated with an altered prognosis during ARDS. But the factors determining the pulmonary vascular dysfunction are poorly known. A murine model of two hit acute lung injury, combining an orotracheal aspiration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to a protective mechanical ventilation, with physiological respiratory and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Three factors which might determine pulmonary vascular dysfunction were studied. In the first work, we established that the use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers, consisting in a transient and repetitive application of high positive pressure level, minimized the alteration of lung mechanics but induced a pulmonary hypertension. A transcriptomic lung analysis showed a dysregulation of many genes involved in main endothelial functions. In the second work, a interleukin-6 deficiency was shown to be associated with higher pulmonary inflammation and edema. An increase in total pulmonary resistances was also observed, but prevented with a human recombinant interleukin-6 treatment and at least partially attributed to a nitric oxide synthase-dependent dysregulation of the pulmonary vasoreactivity. In the third work, we compared young adult and mature adult mice and we observed an age-dependent severity, including a higher systemic and pulmonary inflammation, a higher alveolocapillary leak and a higher bronchoalveolar angiopoietin 2, suggestive for a severe endothelial injury. Our results might contribute to identify new therapeutic pathways targeting pulmonary microvessels during ARDS.Key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vascular dysfunction, aging, interleukin-6, recruitment maneuvers.
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Guillaume Voiriot. Etude de déterminants de la dysfonction vasculaire pulmonaire au cours du syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigue. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST0023⟩. ⟨tel-01790024⟩

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