De l'automobilité à l'électromobilité : des conservatismes en mouvement ? : la fabrique d'une politique publique rurale entre innovations et résistances

Abstract : Renewed mobility policies have been developed since the mid-2000s in French rural areas, which are particularly car dependent. Local authorities have chosen to offer alternatives to automotive mobility. This thesis analyzes the emergence of public electric mobility policies, while national or European incentives encourage their development (cars, bicycles, charging stations). Do rural actors seize these incentives? And how? This study questions therefore the particular ways in which the incentive mechanisms related to electromobility in small rural communities are taken advantage of and how local authorities consent to this encouragement to change. The main hypothesis of this research is that the emergence of e-mobility in rural territories is elaborated and shaped by both local stakeholders and external actors, not always in consensual ways. With a multidisciplinary approach, we study the gradual deployment of e-mobility in two French territories, the Manche department and the Aveyron department. This study is based on the monitoring of several projects, and on interviews of local stakeholders.Our results show how e-mobility is used by local stakeholders to negotiate the turn toward a more sustainable rural transportation network and to reconsider the automobility system. It is seized, discussed, tested or rejected and might be integrated into a territorial strategy, depending on the resources and on the role of local actors.E-mobility is undertaken in several ways. First, it is implanted in a diversity of local public policies (tourism, social inclusion, environment), within smaller projects such as electric bike rental or electric car sharing system. It emerges through practical initiatives which stakeholders come up with in search of new mobility systems for the territory.Secondly, we show that e-mobility is a strategic tool, in larger projects (hydrogen, charging stations) in order to promote an energy system for the territory. In two territories historically shaped by electrical production (nuclear power and hydroelectric power), we demonstrate that e-mobility represents a powerful tool in the context of an energy transition, as it enables stakeholders to secure their role within these territories.The movement toward this innovation is made in the continuity of the rural and local policies, targetting isues such as tourism or local economy, and in connection with the national energy policies of energy transition. Finally, we hypothesize that these projects can also lead to discontinuities, to a reinvention of the rural, toward a new energy network, and new mobilities.
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Aude Cranois. De l'automobilité à l'électromobilité : des conservatismes en mouvement ? : la fabrique d'une politique publique rurale entre innovations et résistances. Géographie. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1066⟩. ⟨tel-01789530⟩

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