Navigation autonome et commande référencée capteurs de robots d'assistance à la personne

Abstract : The autonomy of a mobile agent is defined by its ability to navigate in an environment without human intervention. This task is very required for personal assistance robots. That’s why our contribution has been particularly focused on instrumentation and increasing the autonomy of a wheelchair for reduced mobility peaple. The objective of this work is to design control laws that allow a robot to navigate in real time and independently in an unknown environment. A unified virtual perception framework is introduced and allows to project the navigable space obtained by possibly multiple observations. First we designed an autonomous and safe navigation approach in environment whose structure can be assimilated to a corridor (lines on the ground, walls, delimitation of grasses, roads ...). We have solved this problem by using the formalism of visual servoing. The visual characteristics used in the control law were constructed from the virtual representation (ie the position of the vanishing point and the orientation of the center line of the corridor). To ensure safe and smooth navigation, even when these parameters can not be extracted, we have designed a finite-time state observer to estimate the visual characteristics in order to maintain the robot’s control efficient. This approach let a mobile robot navigate in a corridor even in in the case of sensory failure (unreliable data) and/or loss of measurement. We have extended the first contribution of this work with dealing with any type of static or dynamic environment. This was done using the Voronoi diagram. The Generalized Voronoi Diagram (GVD), also named skeleton, is a powerful environment representation, since, among other reasons, it defines a set of paths at maximal distance from the obstacles. In this work, a real time skeleton based visual servoing approach is proposed for a safe autonomous navigation of mobile robots. The control is based on an approximation of the local GVD using the Delta Medial Axis, a fast and robust skeletonization algorithm. The latter produces a filtered skeleton of the free space surrounding the robot using a pruning parameter that takes into account the robot size. This approach can cope with measurement noises at the perception and control with the wheel slip. This is why we have designed a visual servoing approach on a prediction of a GVD linearization. A complete analysis was performed to show the stability of the proposed control laws. Simulations and experimental tests validate the proposed approach.
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Hela Ben Said. Navigation autonome et commande référencée capteurs de robots d'assistance à la personne. Automatique / Robotique. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0016⟩. ⟨tel-01789103⟩

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