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Etude des effets des hétérogénéités spatiales tridimensionnelles des nuages sur les observables lidar et radar embarqués sur plateforme satellite

Abstract : Clouds display complex three-dimensional (3D) variability in their horizontal and vertical geometric, optical and microphysical properties. Generally and for practical reasons, the clouds are supposed to be homogeneous and parallel in the algorithms for calculating the lidar / radar signal (direct problem) and in the algorithms for the retrieval of the properties of the clouds (inverse problem). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of cloud heterogeneity and multiple scattering on the characteristics measured directly by the lidar / radar. In this study, we only deal with the sources of errors related to the direct problem. Our assessments are based on random sampling and comparison between the average profiles of 3D clouds and 1D equivalent plane-parallel clouds. Therefore, we developed and validated a tool called the lidar / radar / Doppler radar simulator (McRALI). The latter tool is based on the 3DMCPOL model (Cornet et al., 2010). The 3D clouds, used in the current study, were generated by the 3D cloud field generator (3DCLOUD_V2) (Szczap et al., 2014). The tested McRALI code revealed good coherence with earlier published studies. We studied the effects of 3D cloud heterogeneity on three scales 333 m, 1 km and 5 km. The results obtained showed that the biases on the backscattering coefficient β, on the integrated backscattering coefficient γand on the depolarization factor δ increase with increasing the scale and the optical thickness. The study of a cirrus cloud of ice crystals showed that the average profiles of β as well as the γ are statistically equal to the 333 m scale. On the contrary, the biases are statistically significant at 1 km scale. The bias on δ is statistically significant for both scales. The tests carried out on the EarthCARE Doppler CPR radar measurements showed that there is a difference in the measured Doppler velocity close to the discontinuity in a discontinuous cloud. This difference is due to the degree of the discontinuity, the optical, the geometrical properties of the cloud and the geometry of the radar system. This work contributes to better understanding of the effects of cloud heterogeneity on the characteristics measured directly by the lidar / radar.
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Alaa Alkasem. Etude des effets des hétérogénéités spatiales tridimensionnelles des nuages sur les observables lidar et radar embarqués sur plateforme satellite. Sciences de la Terre. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC027⟩. ⟨tel-01789038⟩

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