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Mûrissement et coalescence de mousses liquides

Abstract : Foams are materials widely used in the industry, like in food industry or cosmetics industry for example. These are unstable materials that age over time by coarsening which is gas diffusion between bubbles, by coalescence which is the fusion of two bubbles after rupture of the film between them or by drainage which is the liquid flow between the bubbles due to gravity. These three processes are in competition in foams. During my thesis, I carried out various experiments in order to eliminate drainage and study coarsening, coalescence and the competition between them. After a quick reminder on foam structure and aging and a description of the experimental set-up that I made allowing to control the liquid content of the foam, I present coarsening and coalescence experiments of horizontal 2D foams. First, I show that it is possible to differentiate foams which evolved mainly by coarsening from those which evolved by coalescence. This is done using a convexity parameter that compares the convexity of the bubbles in the foams. The foams which coarsen are then used to study the impact of foam humidity on the films permeability. The permeability is calculated with the help of a new theory which takes into account the humidity of the foam. The coalescing foams are used to study the impact of the liquid fraction, the capillary pressure and the bubbles' size on coalescence in 2D foams. This study shows that an analysis of these parameters at the scale of the foam does not allow to conclude on their real impact on coalescence and that it is necessary to analyze these parameters at the scale of each bubble in order to differentiate their effects. To this end, I have developed a program that follow-up these bubbles and which isolate each event of coalescence. There is a critical liquid fraction above which there is no more coalescence because the films between the bubbles no longer exist. In 3D, I began by establishing link between surface and volume liquid fractions giving a new method to measure the volume liquid fraction from an image of the surface. Then, I studied coarsening of 3D wet foams. One of the goals was to show the transition between the dry regime where le mean radius increase with time as a power law, with an exponent β in the dry regime β =1/2 and the very wet regime where β = 1/3. I carried out multiple light scattering experiments on confined foams and found the values of η to be near 1/2. Nevertheless, the measurement of β in very wet foams wasn't possible. To counter this, the "Soft Matter Dynamics" project aims to study the coarsening and bubbles' rearrangement of wet foams in microgravity in the international space station (ISS). My involvement in this project consisted in the realisation of cell filling and cleaning protocols in collaboration with Airbus, the creation of a program for the automatisation of the bubbles' size measurement and the participation in a test campaign on the foam generation system.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 9, 2018 - 3:50:19 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 11:02:00 AM
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Emilie Forel. Mûrissement et coalescence de mousses liquides. Matériaux. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS431⟩. ⟨tel-01788971⟩

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