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Caractéristiques anthropométriques et performances de haut niveau : évolutions, indicateurs et optimisations

Abstract : The purpose of this thesis is to study the morphological changes of top athletes and identify structural links between performance and anthropometric characteristics. This thesis is comprised of various studies that analyze the highest level of performance by morphological aspect and different levels of proof. At first, we show differentiated changes between high level athletes and individuals in the general population (Studies 1 and 2), presupposing that athletes draw benefits from their anthropometric characteristics. Then we highlight the direct links between anthropometric characteristics and performance in track and field athletes and rugby players (studies 2 and 5): rugby teams with heavier forwards and taller backs are more successful than others. In track and field, calculated allometric coefficients show the impact of mass depending on the distance of the race and sex, suggesting a possible anthropometric progression margin for female athletes. The third level of supporting evidence, highlights the existence of couples [optimal morphologies - optimal performance], biometric attractors beneficial in scoring in basketball (Study 3), and BMI optimum with performance intervals in race distance (studies 4, 5 and 6). Mass, height and BMI are relevant indicators used to specify athletes between different events (morphological gradients in track and field following the spectrum of distances, like energy gradients) but also according to their level (inverse gradient between mass and height according to middle and long distances and sprints). These three indicators also reveal morphological differentiation depending on the specific position. Being compared, changes in mass and height show asynchronous growth indicative of atypicity. Independent from BMI’s primary function of measuring the body size and obesity, it should be refined as a useful indicator of high level performance. Indeed, it reveals trade-off between power, energy capacity and organization of efficient body structure for high level athletes. In athletic performance, the whole body is in action, and mass, height and BMI take into account the entire athlete who moves. Some conclusions from the findings of this thesis arise new thoughts in the performance understanding and will generate the development of experimental protocols. Physiques are the expression of the performance as well as the organization from which it is realized. The results of this thesis, based on the analysis of consistent databases, provide a new vision on morphological optimizations. For the purpose of performance, it is necessary to know the optimizations established in order to situate athletes in their morphological fields, but also enable them to move towards better anthropometric adaptation specific of their activities.
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Sedeaud (2013) - Caractéristi...
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Adrien Sedeaud. Caractéristiques anthropométriques et performances de haut niveau : évolutions, indicateurs et optimisations. Sport. Université Paris V- René Descartes, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-01788589⟩



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