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Theses

Impact de la nutrition périnatale sur la santé intestinale

Abstract : The first thousand days of life are a critical time for the development of both the fetus and the infant, and can modify the risk profile for diseases in later life. However, the longterm consequences of the perinatal environment on the susceptibility to intestinal disorders have not yet been assessed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the early nutritional environment on intestinal maturation and gut health in later life.Postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) was induced in FVB/NRj mice during the suckling period by adjusting the litter size. PNGR delayed intestinal maturation in pups at weaning. PNGR was associated with a maturation delay of the intestinal barrier, characterized by an increased intestinal permeability and impaired tight junctions. At the same time, PNGR affected gut bacterial colonization. Pups with PNGR harbored a decreased bacterial diversity, higher Parabacteroides spp, Enterococcus spp, Erysipelatoclostridium spp, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes spp, Staphylococcus spp, and Escherichia-Shigella spp, and lower butyrate producers. The lack of an efficient intestinal barrier and the dysbiosis induced by PNGR were associated with an altered intestinal inflammatory response in adult mice, characterized by an increase of Th1, Th17 and Treg immune responses, and a higher susceptibility to chemically induced colitis.Our data emphasize the importance of the early nutritional environment in programming of gut health in later life, and support the hypothesis of the developmental origin of chronic intestinal disorders.
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Delphine Ley. Impact de la nutrition périnatale sur la santé intestinale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S051⟩. ⟨tel-01787682⟩

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